# 18.5 Occurrence, preparation, and compounds of hydrogen  (Page 3/9)

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Chemical Reactions of Hydrogen with Other Elements
${\text{MH or MH}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{MOH or M}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}+{\text{H}}_{2}$ ionic hydrides with group 1 and Ca, Sr, and Ba
${\text{H}}_{2}+\text{C}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{(no reaction)}$
${\text{3H}}_{2}+{\text{N}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2NH}}_{3}$ requires high pressure and temperature; low yield
${\text{2H}}_{2}+{\text{O}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}$ exothermic and potentially explosive
${\text{H}}_{2}+\text{S}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{2}\text{S}$ requires heating; low yield
${\text{H}}_{2}+{\text{X}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{2HX}$ X = F, Cl, Br, and I; explosive with F 2 ; low yield with I 2

## Reaction with compounds

Hydrogen reduces the heated oxides of many metals, with the formation of the metal and water vapor. For example, passing hydrogen over heated CuO forms copper and water.

Hydrogen may also reduce the metal ions in some metal oxides to lower oxidation states:

${\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}+\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{MnO}}_{2}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}\phantom{\rule{0.4em}{0ex}}}{\to }\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{MnO}\left(s\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(g\right)$

## Hydrogen compounds

Other than the noble gases, each of the nonmetals forms compounds with hydrogen. For brevity, we will discuss only a few hydrogen compounds of the nonmetals here.

## Nitrogen hydrogen compounds

Ammonia, NH 3 , forms naturally when any nitrogen-containing organic material decomposes in the absence of air. The laboratory preparation of ammonia is by the reaction of an ammonium salt with a strong base such as sodium hydroxide. The acid-base reaction with the weakly acidic ammonium ion gives ammonia, illustrated in [link] . Ammonia also forms when ionic nitrides react with water. The nitride ion is a much stronger base than the hydroxide ion:

${\text{Mg}}_{3}{\text{N}}_{2}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}+\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{6H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{3Mg}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}\left(s\right)+{\text{2NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)$

The commercial production of ammonia is by the direct combination of the elements in the Haber process    :

${\text{N}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{3H}}_{2}\left(g\right)\stackrel{\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{catalyst}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}}{\text{⇌}}{\text{2NH}}_{3}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{5em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}H\text{°}=\text{−92 kJ}$

Ammonia is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. Smelling salts utilize this powerful odor. Gaseous ammonia readily liquefies to give a colorless liquid that boils at −33 °C. Due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding, the enthalpy of vaporization of liquid ammonia is higher than that of any other liquid except water, so ammonia is useful as a refrigerant. Ammonia is quite soluble in water (658 L at STP dissolves in 1 L H 2 O).

The chemical properties of ammonia are as follows:

1. Ammonia acts as a Brønsted base, as discussed in the chapter on acid-base chemistry. The ammonium ion is similar in size to the potassium ion; compounds of the two ions exhibit many similarities in their structures and solubilities.
2. Ammonia can display acidic behavior, although it is a much weaker acid than water. Like other acids, ammonia reacts with metals, although it is so weak that high temperatures are necessary. Hydrogen and (depending on the stoichiometry) amides (salts of ${\text{NH}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}\right),$ imides (salts of NH 2− ), or nitrides (salts of N 3− ) form.
3. The nitrogen atom in ammonia has its lowest possible oxidation state (3−) and thus is not susceptible to reduction. However, it can be oxidized. Ammonia burns in air, giving NO and water. Hot ammonia and the ammonium ion are active reducing agents. Of particular interest are the oxidations of ammonium ion by nitrite ion, ${\text{NO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}},$ to yield pure nitrogen and by nitrate ion to yield nitrous oxide, N 2 O.
4. There are a number of compounds that we can consider derivatives of ammonia through the replacement of one or more hydrogen atoms with some other atom or group of atoms. Inorganic derivations include chloramine, NH 2 Cl, and hydrazine, N 2 H 4 :

#### Questions & Answers

is methane a molecule
yes
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calculations for solubility
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The common name is therefore propyl bromide . For the IUPAC name , the prefix for bromine (bromo) is combined with the name for a three-carbon chain (propane), preceded by a number identifying the carbon atom to which the Br atom is attached, so the IUPAC name is 1-bromopropane.
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I suck at chemistry I need a tutor
kedis
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hey kedis,never say that u suck,u don't,all u need is to calm down,get the book and get the points,no need to read it word by word or a-z. ur good bro,u r veeeery intelligent
UDUJI
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Chemistry is the study of matter
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chemistry is the study of matter and changes it undergoes
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biology is said to be the science of studying life and living organism including theirs physical structure,chemical processes, molecular interaction development and evolution
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bose
that'll be 11
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ok
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anymore questions 😁
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re u writing jamb
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please, how man Bond are present when a methane under goes a complete combustion
Combustion of Methane The reactants are on the left side of the equation and the products are on the right. In the reaction, the bonds in the methane and oxygen come apart, the atoms rearrange and then re-bond to form water and carbon dioxide.
saidi
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Glory
Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The reaction is reversible, and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic. Only 5% of the ethene is converted intoethanol at each pass through the reactor
saidi
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the individual elements of matter.
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tiny particles that make up a all matter.
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Acquah