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Writing reaction equations for Δ H f °

Write the heat of formation reaction equations for:

(a) C 2 H 5 OH( l )

(b) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ( s )


Remembering that Δ H f ° reaction equations are for forming 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements under standard conditions, we have:

(a) 2 C ( s , graphite ) + 3 H 2 ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) C 2 H 5 OH ( l )

(b) 3 Ca ( s ) + 1 2 P 4 ( s ) + 4 O 2 ( g ) Ca 3 ( PO 4 ) 2 ( s )

Note: The standard state of carbon is graphite, and phosphorus exists as P 4 .

Check your learning

Write the heat of formation reaction equations for:

(a) C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 ( l )

(b) Na 2 CO 3 ( s )


(a) 4 C ( s , graphite ) + 5 H 2 ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 ( l ) ; (b) 2 Na ( s ) + C ( s , graphite ) + 3 2 O 2 ( g ) Na 2 CO 3 ( s )

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Hess’s law

There are two ways to determine the amount of heat involved in a chemical change: measure it experimentally, or calculate it from other experimentally determined enthalpy changes. Some reactions are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate and make accurate measurements for experimentally. And even when a reaction is not hard to perform or measure, it is convenient to be able to determine the heat involved in a reaction without having to perform an experiment.

This type of calculation usually involves the use of Hess’s law    , which states: If a process can be written as the sum of several stepwise processes, the enthalpy change of the total process equals the sum of the enthalpy changes of the various steps . Hess’s law is valid because enthalpy is a state function: Enthalpy changes depend only on where a chemical process starts and ends, but not on the path it takes from start to finish. For example, we can think of the reaction of carbon with oxygen to form carbon dioxide as occurring either directly or by a two-step process. The direct process is written:

C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = −394 kJ

In the two-step process, first carbon monoxide is formed:

C ( s ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = −111 kJ

Then, carbon monoxide reacts further to form carbon dioxide:

CO ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = −283 kJ

The equation describing the overall reaction is the sum of these two chemical changes:

Step 1: C ( s ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO ( g ) Step 2: CO ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) ¯ Sum: C ( s ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) + CO ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO ( g ) + CO 2 ( g )

Because the CO produced in Step 1 is consumed in Step 2, the net change is:

C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g )

According to Hess’s law, the enthalpy change of the reaction will equal the sum of the enthalpy changes of the steps. We can apply the data from the experimental enthalpies of combustion in [link] to find the enthalpy change of the entire reaction from its two steps:

C ( s ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = −111 kJ CO ( g ) + 1 2 O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) Δ H 298 ° = −283 kJ Δ H 298 ° = −394 kJ

The result is shown in [link] . We see that Δ H of the overall reaction is the same whether it occurs in one step or two. This finding (overall Δ H for the reaction = sum of Δ H values for reaction “steps” in the overall reaction) is true in general for chemical and physical processes.

A diagram is shown. A long arrow faces upward on the left with the phrase “H increasing.” A horizontal line at the bottom of the diagram is shown with the formula “C O subscript 2 (g)” below it. A horizontal line at the top of the diagram has the formulas “C (s) + O subscript 2 (g)” above it. The top and bottom lines are connected by a downward facing arrow with the value “Δ H = –394 k J” written beside it. Below and to the right of the top horizontal line is a second horizontal line with the equations “C O (g) + one half O subscript 2 (g)” above it. This line and the bottom line are connected by a downward facing arrow with the value “Δ H = –283 k J” written beside it. The same line and the top line are connected by a downward facing arrow with the value “Δ H = –111 k J” written beside it. There are three brackets to the right of the diagram. The first bracket runs from the top horizontal line to the second horizontal line. It is labeled, “Enthalpy of reactants.” The second bracket runs from the second horizontal line to the bottom horizontal line. It is labeled, “Enthalpy of products.” Both of these brackets are included in the third bracket which runs from the top to the bottom of the diagram. It is labeled, “Enthalpy change of exothermic reaction in 1 or 2 steps.”
The formation of CO 2 ( g ) from its elements can be thought of as occurring in two steps, which sum to the overall reaction, as described by Hess’s law. The horizontal blue lines represent enthalpies. For an exothermic process, the products are at lower enthalpy than are the reactants.

Questions & Answers

can someone please tell me what does an Entropy means
Afiwape Reply
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Archie Reply
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chemistry is a brach of science which deal with the study of the nature, composition structure and with the force that hold the structure together and the change matter will undergo undedifferent conditions
And god has created everything from nothing
forms of biotechnology
Ocheme Reply
What is a mole?
Henry Reply
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Destiny Reply
Copper, Scandium, Vanadium, Iron, Chromium, Cobalt
ion zinc hydrogen
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Stanley Reply
depends on the compound. as you may know there's transition metal compounds and there's organic compounds and so on and so forth.
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Lorrita Reply
electricity refers to the flow electrons
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Gift Reply
When 1 or 2 chemicals react, they rearrange their atomic composition forming new compounds. The total mass before and after is the same/ constant. Chemical equations of same reactants react in same ratios e.g. 1 Na ion reacts with 1 water molecule or a multipier like 1 mole of Na ions react with 1
Mole of water molecules. In that example we multipied by 6.02*10^23 or avogadro constant (L). Or 2 Na+ ions with two water molecules. The arrow means '' to form '' Some times conditions or reactants are written above the arrow like H+ or enzyme or temper, sometimes physical states are written
Beside the chemical Aqueous (aq) which means solute dissolved on water. Solid (s) etc Some chemical equations are written next to it ΔH= # which means enthalpy change which describes if the reaction is endothermic (+) or exothermic (-).
Some are reversible and have half double arrow sign.
what is the meaning of atoma
Ibrahim Reply
what is theory
Michael Reply
what is chemical compound
A compound is the result of chemical bonding between 2 or more different elements.
Why is an atom electrically neutral?
the same number of electron , proton present in an atom.thats why it is electrically neutral
difference between Amine and amide
Amadu Reply
what is the difference between alkanal and alkanone
difference between alkanol and alkanal
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is organic compounds used for drying agent
Olawale Reply
Sulfuric acid is used as a drying agent.
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John Reply
An atom is the smallest part of an element, for instance gold atoms are the smallest part of gold that can enter a reaction. An atom must consist protons and electrons of equal number. You can think of those subatomic particles as spheres, but not orbiting randomly they move in specific way in
That was partially described mathematically. As a muslim, we believe that god created all matter from nothing. He is the Able, and only who can create matter in the begging in the big bang that was described in the Quran in chapter 17 verse 30, 1400 years ago, you can read it from internet.
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Olubodun Reply
Proton donor (H+). Like in lemons, oranges and some medicines.
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favor Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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