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Aluminum is a very good reducing agent and may replace other reducing agents in the isolation of certain metals from their oxides. Although more expensive than reduction by carbon, aluminum is important in the isolation of Mo, W, and Cr from their oxides.

Group 14

The metallic members of group 14 are tin, lead, and flerovium. Carbon is a typical nonmetal. The remaining elements of the group, silicon and germanium, are examples of semimetals or metalloids. Tin and lead form the stable divalent cations, Sn 2+ and Pb 2+ , with oxidation states two below the group oxidation state of 4+. The stability of this oxidation state is a consequence of the inert pair effect. Tin and lead also form covalent compounds with a formal 4+-oxidation state. For example, SnCl 4 and PbCl 4 are low-boiling covalent liquids.

Two photos are shown and labeled “a” and “b.” Photo a shows a watch glass holding a fine, white powder. Photo b shows a sealed glass vial holding a clear, colorless liquid.
(a) Tin(II) chloride is an ionic solid; (b) tin(IV) chloride is a covalent liquid.

Tin reacts readily with nonmetals and acids to form tin(II) compounds (indicating that it is more easily oxidized than hydrogen) and with nonmetals to form either tin(II) or tin(IV) compounds (shown in [link] ), depending on the stoichiometry and reaction conditions. Lead is less reactive. It is only slightly easier to oxidize than hydrogen, and oxidation normally requires a hot concentrated acid.

Many of these elements exist as allotropes. Allotropes are two or more forms of the same element in the same physical state with different chemical and physical properties. There are two common allotropes of tin. These allotropes are grey (brittle) tin and white tin. As with other allotropes, the difference between these forms of tin is in the arrangement of the atoms. White tin is stable above 13.2 °C and is malleable like other metals. At low temperatures, gray tin is the more stable form. Gray tin is brittle and tends to break down to a powder. Consequently, articles made of tin will disintegrate in cold weather, particularly if the cold spell is lengthy. The change progresses slowly from the spot of origin, and the gray tin that is first formed catalyzes further change. In a way, this effect is similar to the spread of an infection in a plant or animal body, leading people to call this process tin disease or tin pest.

The principal use of tin is in the coating of steel to form tin plate-sheet iron, which constitutes the tin in tin cans. Important tin alloys are bronze (Cu and Sn) and solder (Sn and Pb). Lead is important in the lead storage batteries in automobiles.

Group 15

Bismuth , the heaviest member of group 15, is a less reactive metal than the other representative metals. It readily gives up three of its five valence electrons to active nonmetals to form the tri-positive ion, Bi 3+ . It forms compounds with the group oxidation state of 5+ only when treated with strong oxidizing agents. The stability of the 3+-oxidation state is another example of the inert pair effect.

Key concepts and summary

This section focuses on the periodicity of the representative elements. These are the elements where the electrons are entering the s and p orbitals. The representative elements occur in groups 1, 2, and 12–18. These elements are representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. The alkali metals (group 1) are very reactive, readily form ions with a charge of 1+ to form ionic compounds that are usually soluble in water, and react vigorously with water to form hydrogen gas and a basic solution of the metal hydroxide. The outermost electrons of the alkaline earth metals (group 2) are more difficult to remove than the outer electron of the alkali metals, leading to the group 2 metals being less reactive than those in group 1. These elements easily form compounds in which the metals exhibit an oxidation state of 2+. Zinc, cadmium, and mercury (group 12) commonly exhibit the group oxidation state of 2+ (although mercury also exhibits an oxidation state of 1+ in compounds that contain Hg 2 2+ ) . Aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium (group 13) are easier to oxidize than is hydrogen. Aluminum, gallium, and indium occur with an oxidation state 3+ (however, thallium also commonly occurs as the Tl + ion). Tin and lead form stable divalent cations and covalent compounds in which the metals exhibit the 4+-oxidation state.

Questions & Answers

what is molar mass?
Wendy Reply
Molar mass is defined as the mass of a sample of a compound divided by the amount of substance of that sample.
Love
atom is the smallest indivisible part of an element that takes place in chemical reaction
Obinna Reply
An atom is the smallest indivisible part of an element
Vibes
what is chemistry?
Mathias Reply
what is an atom
Mathias
what is an atom?
Mathias
please what is hydroxyl group
Gold Reply
the hydroxyl group is a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an oxygen atom.
Itz
Names are of homologous series
Josiah Reply
what's an hydroxyl group?
VICTORY Reply
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohols and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. The anion [OH⁻], called hydroxide, consists of a hydroxyl group. 
okwara
what are the steps to follow when writing the condensed formula of elements
Jessicafaith Reply
What is organic chemistry
John Reply
what's organic chemistry?
Mr Reply
why do electrons have no mass
Skynetic Reply
hello
Samuel
hello there
Oliver
hi and who say electrons has no mass ? it does have but most at time consider negleable
Eyong
hello
Lagazani
please what is maa
Lagazani
yeah i will calculate it
divine
Because it's mass it very very small compare with mass of atom
Yasmeen
it's simple
lola
consider the rxn of butadiene .Butadiene is prepared by the gas phase catalytic dehydrogenation of 1-butene , at 900K and 1 bar. c4H8 (g)_ C4H6 (g) + H2 (g) (a) In order to suppress side reactions , the butane is diluted with steam before it passes into the reactor.Estimate the conversion
Rodrick
Estimate the conversion of 1-butene for a feed consisting of 10 moles of steam per mole of 1-butene. (b) find the conversion if the inerts were absent and side reactions are ignored .
Rodrick
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Rodrick
wat is the difference between electrochemical chemical corrosion
Uzor
please how can i solve this project work..modern aid science process and product
Lagazani
what is the definition of chemistry
Sophia Reply
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Eyong
the icon is clear white then writing transcendence Internationale study group
Eyong
U will see it
Eyong
for now chemistry is the study of matter and it properties, why and how element combined to form other substances
Eyong
Chemistry is a group that identifies properties of matter and many more
Alona
Wow and chemistry also is the systematic study of nature
Eyong
chemistry is the study of the structure, properties of matter and the effect of addition or removal of heat from substances.
Bra
calculate the relative molecular Mass of the following 1 ZnCl2 2 NaNo3 3 HNO3 4 CaO
Reuben Reply
2) 23+14+(16×3)= 3)1+14+(16×3)= 4) 40+16= 1) Zn+71= that's how they do it but for Zn I don't know its mass number
Eyong
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Eyong
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Christian
hi guys I'm new here, please I need definition of acid and base
Gold
What is radioactivity
Aaron Reply
radioactivity is the spontaneous disintegration of the nucleus of an atom of an element to emmit radiation
Vivian
When dividing a certain and uncertain number, you still use sig figs? Ex: 12.86g divided by 12 M&Ms
Kristen Reply
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Ekene Reply
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Christian
i don't understand
Ekene
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Christian
What do you struggle with?
Alanna
organic chemistry as a whole
Christian
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Eyong
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Eyong
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Eyong
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Judith
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Judith
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Judith
Daniel am nt on wats
Christian
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Eyong
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Christian
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Judith
create one
Christian
and what's the meaning of face
Judith
fb
Christian
don't have an account
Judith
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Eyong
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Eyong
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Eyong
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Judith
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Christian
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Eyong
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Judith
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Judith
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Christian
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Eyong
Transcendence
Judith
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Judith
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Christian
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Christian
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Judith
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Christian
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Eyong
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Christian
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Judith
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Christian
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Eyong
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Judith
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Christian
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Eyong
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Judith
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Judith
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Eyong
ueah
Christian
Judith answer
Eyong
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Eyong
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Christian
are u Christian joy thAt study in Lagos? am standing beside a white car
Eyong
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Christian
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Eyong
seen
Christian
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Christian
don't get you
Judith
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Christian
wat is periodicity of element
Abraham
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Christian
wat is periodicity of element
Abraham
Abraham periodicity is the trend of variation in the property of element in the periodic table with increased in atomic number but is mostly on physical properties
Eyong
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Christian
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Judith
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Christian
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Judith
Tru Daniel
Christian
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Eyong
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Christian
hello
Eyong
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Justice
send message to EYONG DANIEL on messenger
Eyong
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Eyong
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divine
ok divine type on fb transcendence Internationale u will see many but our icon is white and transcendence Internationale is written in red then study group is in green colour then there is a star also on it
Eyong
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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