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This figure contains a photo of a refinery, showing large columnar structures. A diagram of a fractional distillation column used in separating crude oil is also shown. Near the bottom of the column, an arrow pointing into the column shows a point of entry for heated crude oil. The column contains several layers at which different components are removed. At the very bottom, residue materials are removed as indicated by an arrow out of the column. At each successive level, different materials are removed proceeding from the bottom to the top of the column. The materials are fuel oil, followed by diesel oil, kerosene, naptha, gasoline, and refinery gas at the very top. To the right of the column diagram, a double sided arrow is shown that is blue at the top and gradually changes color to red moving downward. The blue top of the arrow is labeled, “small molecules: low boiling point, very volatile, flows easily, ignites easily.” The red bottom of the arrow is labeled, “large molecules: high boiling point, not very volatile, does not flow easily, does not ignite easily.”
Crude oil is a complex mixture that is separated by large-scale fractional distillation to isolate various simpler mixtures.

Depression of the freezing point of a solvent

Solutions freeze at lower temperatures than pure liquids. This phenomenon is exploited in “de-icing” schemes that use salt ( [link] ), calcium chloride, or urea to melt ice on roads and sidewalks, and in the use of ethylene glycol as an “antifreeze” in automobile radiators. Seawater freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water, and so the Arctic and Antarctic oceans remain unfrozen even at temperatures below 0 °C (as do the body fluids of fish and other cold-blooded sea animals that live in these oceans).

This is a photo of damp brick pavement on which a white crystalline material has been spread.
Rock salt (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ), or a mixture of the two are used to melt ice. (credit: modification of work by Eddie Welker)

The decrease in freezing point of a dilute solution compared to that of the pure solvent, Δ T f , is called the freezing point depression    and is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solute

Δ T f = K f m

where m is the molal concentration of the solute in the solvent and K f is called the freezing point depression constant    (or cryoscopic constant ). Just as for boiling point elevation constants, these are characteristic properties whose values depend on the chemical identity of the solvent. Values of K f for several solvents are listed in [link] .

Calculation of the freezing point of a solution

What is the freezing point of the 0.33 m solution of a nonvolatile nonelectrolyte solute in benzene described in [link] ?


Use the equation relating freezing point depression to solute molality to solve this problem in two steps.

This is a diagram with three boxes connected with two arrows pointing to the right. The first box is labeled, “Molality of solution,” followed by an arrow labeled, “1,” pointing to a second box labeled, “Change in freezing point,” followed by an arrow labeled, “2” pointing to a third box labeled, “New freezing point.”
  1. Calculate the change in freezing point.
    Δ T f = K f m = 5.12 ° C m −1 × 0.33 m = 1.7 ° C
  2. Subtract the freezing point change observed from the pure solvent’s freezing point.
    Freezing Temperature = 5.5 ° C 1.7 ° C = 3.8 ° C

Check your learning

What is the freezing point of a 1.85 m solution of a nonvolatile nonelectrolyte solute in nitrobenzene?


−9.3 °C

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Colligative properties and de-icing

Sodium chloride and its group 2 analogs calcium and magnesium chloride are often used to de-ice roadways and sidewalks, due to the fact that a solution of any one of these salts will have a freezing point lower than 0 °C, the freezing point of pure water. The group 2 metal salts are frequently mixed with the cheaper and more readily available sodium chloride (“rock salt”) for use on roads, since they tend to be somewhat less corrosive than the NaCl, and they provide a larger depression of the freezing point, since they dissociate to yield three particles per formula unit, rather than two particles like the sodium chloride.

Because these ionic compounds tend to hasten the corrosion of metal, they would not be a wise choice to use in antifreeze for the radiator in your car or to de-ice a plane prior to takeoff. For these applications, covalent compounds, such as ethylene or propylene glycol, are often used. The glycols used in radiator fluid not only lower the freezing point of the liquid, but they elevate the boiling point, making the fluid useful in both winter and summer. Heated glycols are often sprayed onto the surface of airplanes prior to takeoff in inclement weather in the winter to remove ice that has already formed and prevent the formation of more ice, which would be particularly dangerous if formed on the control surfaces of the aircraft ( [link] ).

This figure contains two photos. The first photo is a rear view of a large highway maintenance truck carrying a bright orange de-icer sign. A white material appears to be deposited at the rear of the truck onto the roadway. The second image is of an airplane being sprayed with a solution to remove ice prior to take off.
Freezing point depression is exploited to remove ice from (a) roadways and (b) the control surfaces of aircraft.

Questions & Answers

Whats d IUPAC Numenclature of bromine
Emmanuel Reply
The common name is therefore propyl bromide . For the IUPAC name , the prefix for bromine (bromo) is combined with the name for a three-carbon chain (propane), preceded by a number identifying the carbon atom to which the Br atom is attached, so the IUPAC name is 1-bromopropane.
What is Quantum number
Derick Reply
what are the chemical properties of group IIA Element and their atomic structure?
What is mixture
Azeez Reply
A mixture is a mix of substances that can be separated
what is quantum number
Baba Reply
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h20 hydrates, nitrogen/dry ice lowers pressure similar to space environment when heated at what location/temp.? +or-, expect location (xyz)
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what's neuron?
Kelvin Reply
neuron or neutron?
cell of the nerve
prepare a solution of 1m iodine in 250mls of water
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Chemistry is the study of matter
chemistry is the study of matter and changes it undergoes
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atomic number of sodium
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re u writing jamb
please, how man Bond are present when a methane under goes a complete combustion
moses Reply
Combustion of Methane The reactants are on the left side of the equation and the products are on the right. In the reaction, the bonds in the methane and oxygen come apart, the atoms rearrange and then re-bond to form water and carbon dioxide.
how is ethanol produced using ethene
Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The reaction is reversible, and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic. Only 5% of the ethene is converted intoethanol at each pass through the reactor
Ethanol can be made by reacting ethene (from cracking crude oil fractions) with steam. A catalyst of phosphoric acid is used to ensure a fast reaction. Notice that ethanol is the only product. The process is continuous – as long as ethene and steam are fed into one end of the reaction vessel, ethano
the mole concerpt and its tricks
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what are atoms
ola Reply
the individual elements of matter.
tiny particles that make up a all matter.
smallest particles of an element
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Differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
Amos Reply
Ans: The amount of heat energy released or absorbed when a solid changing to liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point is known as the latent heat of fusion. while Vaporization of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor.
a student was required to prepare 500cm of 1.0M solution of glucose(C6H12O6). (C=12, H=1, O=16).determine a.molar mass of glucose b.amount of glucose in mole c.mass of glucose contained in the solution
Mac Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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