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About Chemistry

Chemistry is designed for the two-semester general chemistry course. For many students, this course provides the foundation to a career in chemistry, while for others, this may be their only college-level science course. As such, this textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts apply to their lives and the world around them. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most general chemistry courses. At the same time, the book includes a number of innovative features designed to enhance student learning. A strength of Chemistry is that instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom.

Coverage and scope

Our Chemistry textbook adheres to the scope and sequence of most general chemistry courses nationwide. We strive to make chemistry, as a discipline, interesting and accessible to students. With this objective in mind, the content of this textbook has been developed and arranged to provide a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts of chemical science. Topics are introduced within the context of familiar experiences whenever possible, treated with an appropriate rigor to satisfy the intellect of the learner, and reinforced in subsequent discussions of related content. The organization and pedagogical features were developed and vetted with feedback from chemistry educators dedicated to the project.
  • Chapter 1: Essential Ideas
  • Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions
  • Chapter 3: Composition of Substances and Solutions
  • Chapter 4: Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions
  • Chapter 5: Thermochemistry
  • Chapter 6: Electronic Structures and Periodic Properties of Elements
  • Chapter 7: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
  • Chapter 8: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding
  • Chapter 9: Gases
  • Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids
  • Chapter 11: Solutions and Colloids
  • Chapter 12: Kinetics
  • Chapter 13: Fundamental Equilibrium Concepts
  • Chapter 14: Acid-Base Equilibria
  • Chapter 15: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes
  • Chapter 16: Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 17: Electrochemistry
  • Chapter 18: Representative Metals, Metalloids, and Nonmetals
  • Chapter 19: Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry
  • Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry
  • Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry

Pedagogical foundation

Throughout Chemistry , you will find features that draw the students into scientific inquiry by taking selected topics a step further. Students and educators alike will appreciate discussions in these feature boxes.
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life ties chemistry concepts to everyday issues and real-world applications of science that students encounter in their lives. Topics include cell phones, solar thermal energy power plants, plastics recycling, and measuring blood pressure.
  • How Sciences Interconnect feature boxes discuss chemistry in context of its interconnectedness with other scientific disciplines. Topics include neurotransmitters, greenhouse gases and climate change, and proteins and enzymes.
  • Portrait of a Chemist features present a short bio and an introduction to the work of prominent figures from history and present day so that students can see the “face” of contributors in this field as well as science in action.

Questions & Answers

what is electricity
Lorrita Reply
electricity refers to the flow electrons
Hi. please can you tell me more on chemical equation
Gift Reply
When 1 or 2 chemicals react, they rearrange their atomic composition forming new compounds. The total mass before and after is the same/ constant. Chemical equations of same reactants react in same ratios e.g. 1 Na ion reacts with 1 water molecule or a multipier like 1 mole of Na ions react with 1
Mole of water molecules. In that example we multipied by 6.02*10^23 or avogadro constant (L). Or 2 Na+ ions with two water molecules. The arrow means '' to form '' Some times conditions or reactants are written above the arrow like H+ or enzyme or temper, sometimes physical states are written
Beside the chemical Aqueous (aq) which means solute dissolved on water. Solid (s) etc Some chemical equations are written next to it ΔH= # which means enthalpy change which describes if the reaction is endothermic (+) or exothermic (-).
Some are reversible and have half double arrow sign.
what is the meaning of atoma
Ibrahim Reply
what is theory
Michael Reply
what is chemical compound
A compound is the result of chemical bonding between 2 or more different elements.
difference between Amine and amide
Amadu Reply
what is the difference between alkanal and alkanone
difference between alkanol and alkanal
you are not well at all
is organic compounds used for drying agent
Olawale Reply
Sulfuric acid is used as a drying agent.
what is an atom
John Reply
An atom is the smallest part of an element, for instance gold atoms are the smallest part of gold that can enter a reaction. An atom must consist protons and electrons of equal number. You can think of those subatomic particles as spheres, but not orbiting randomly they move in specific way in
That was partially described mathematically. As a muslim, we believe that god created all matter from nothing. He is the Able, and only who can create matter in the begging in the big bang that was described in the Quran in chapter 17 verse 30, 1400 years ago, you can read it from internet.
what is electron affinity
do you have a private jet
what is acid
Olubodun Reply
Proton donor (H+). Like in lemons, oranges and some medicines.
what is titration? and how can i get my readings?
favor Reply
what is electrolysis?
favor Reply
what is the formula you use when calculating for gas law?
electro-means electricity while lysis-means splitting up so electrolysis simply means splitting up by means of electric current
good day. how may I see previous question asked in this chat, please?
Asha, A person named Favor asked what is meant by the term electrolysis
what is gad law
Shampoo Reply
what is a sample
Dorcas Reply
According to google, a speciemen taken for specific testing or analysis.
how would you carry out a qualitative analysis for two samples of salt suspected to contain chloride ion, bromide ion,iodide ion and carbonate ion
michael Reply
You can search google for test for these ions or test for anions ingeneral which will help you as it contauns videos too.
what is acid
why don't you just search for what is acid
This is a question you're being tested Abdelkarim stop being rude
an element x with electronic configurations as 2s²,2p²,3p6,combines with another element y with electronic configuration as 1s², 2p²,3p²,3p5,derive the chemical formula of the compound
Peace Reply
These electrongic configuration are entered wrong, any way, you can use an app called peridoic table 2021 that has advabced electric configuration in your studying. Use it to learn about patterns easier. And use it to solve problem: identify elements, then figure out bonding and ration for example:
The elemtents are H and S Then the formula is H2S.
an element x with electronic configurations as 2s²,2p²,3p6,combines with another element y with electronic configuration as 1s², 2p²,3p²,3p5,derive the chemical formula of the compound
Peace Reply
what is atomic number
It is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which is unique for each element e.g only gold atoms have 79 protons in their nucleus.
the number present in proton in nucleus of an atom

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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