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  • Chemical Equilibria
  • Equilibrium Constants
  • Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
  • Equilibrium Calculations
An image depicts three tan squares, lying side-by-side along the upper left corner. Two of the same squares also lie side-by-side in the lower right corner. Each square has a black dot in the center. One of the squares is labeled, “C O subscript 2,” and has a double-headed arrow pointing from it to a red tube-like structure that runs between the squares across the image from the upper right to the lower left. This arrow is labeled, “C O subscript 2 dissolved in plasma.” The red tube has two round red shapes in it, and the upper one is labeled, “C O subscript 2 carried in red blood cells.” The gaps between the squares and the red tube are colored light blue. One of the squares along the top of the image is labeled, “C O subscript 2,” and is connected by a double-headed arrow to an equation in the red tube that is labeled, “C O subscript 2, a plus sign, H subscript 2 O, right-facing arrow, H subscript 2 C O subscript 3, right-facing arrow, H C O subscript 3 superscript negative sign, plus sign, H superscript positive sign.” The compound “H C O subscript 3 superscript negative sign” is then connected by a double-headed arrow to the space in the red tube and is labeled, “H C O subscript 3 superscript negative sign dissolved in plasma as carbonic acid.”
Movement of carbon dioxide through tissues and blood cells involves several equilibrium reactions.

Imagine a beach populated with sunbathers and swimmers. As those basking in the sun get too hot and want to cool off, they head into the surf to swim. As the swimmers tire, they head to the beach to rest. If these two rates of transfer (sunbathers entering the water, swimmers leaving the water) are equal, the number of sunbathers and swimmers would be constant, or at equilibrium, although the identities of the people are constantly changing from sunbather to swimmer and back. An analogous situation occurs in chemical reactions. Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance.

These balanced two-way reactions occur all around and even in us. For example, they occur in our blood, where the reaction between carbon dioxide and water forms carbonic acid ( HCO 3 ) ( [link] ). Human physiology is adapted to the amount of ionized products produced by this reaction ( HCO 3 and H + ). In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.

Questions & Answers

what is dative bond?
Aleesa Reply
A coordinate covalent bond, also known as a dative bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.
dharshika
what is elemental composition of earth
grace Reply
what if we try copper and the hydrogen what happened
Elizabeth Reply
law of definite proportion
Victor Reply
Law of Definite Proportion states that all pure samples of the same chemical compound contains the same elements in proportion by mass
Eunice
what is chemistry
Amos Reply
It is that branch of Science which deals with the study of composition, structure and properties of matter .... Ok
ShAmy
The branch of natural science that deals with the constitution of substances and the changes that they undergo as a consequence of alterations in the constitution of their molecules
Young
what is the constitution of substance
ShAmy
picture of periodic table
Tessy Reply
what is matter
Emmaworldwide Reply
What are the classes of colloid
Ilo Reply
percentage composition
Morie Reply
what is fermentation
Chisom Reply
what is distillation
Chisom
were is the topic of chrorides
Mary Reply
why does liquids have no fixed shape but a fixed volume?
Nana Reply
it has no fixed shape
SHOLA
liquids are shaped acc to the container they are placed in since their particles are mobile ie they move throughout the whole liquid.hence they have no fixed shape .
Kwagala
what are the easiest way to understand chemistry intensively?
Edet Reply
i dont think there is any easy way than reading from the begining to the end
Mary
lol
precious
Yea
Amaka
understanding the basis!
Abdullahi
the first 20 elements
Folu Reply
Difference between phase and gas
Yusuf Reply
OK what can I help you?
Kayoka

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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