# Opener

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• Chemical Equilibria
• Equilibrium Constants
• Shifting Equilibria: Le Châtelier’s Principle
• Equilibrium Calculations

Imagine a beach populated with sunbathers and swimmers. As those basking in the sun get too hot and want to cool off, they head into the surf to swim. As the swimmers tire, they head to the beach to rest. If these two rates of transfer (sunbathers entering the water, swimmers leaving the water) are equal, the number of sunbathers and swimmers would be constant, or at equilibrium, although the identities of the people are constantly changing from sunbather to swimmer and back. An analogous situation occurs in chemical reactions. Reactions can occur in both directions simultaneously (reactants to products and products to reactants) and eventually reach a state of balance.

These balanced two-way reactions occur all around and even in us. For example, they occur in our blood, where the reaction between carbon dioxide and water forms carbonic acid $\left({\text{HCO}}_{3}{}^{\text{−}}\right)$ ( [link] ). Human physiology is adapted to the amount of ionized products produced by this reaction $\left({\text{HCO}}_{3}{}^{\text{−}}$ and H + ). In this chapter, you will learn how to predict the position of the balance and the yield of a product of a reaction under specific conditions, how to change a reaction's conditions to increase or reduce yield, and how to evaluate an equilibrium system's reaction to disturbances.

what is aromaticity
what is caustic soda
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Kamaluddeen
what is distilled water
Rihanat
is simply means a condensed water vapour
Kamaluddeen
a hydrocarbon contains 7.7 percent by mass of hydrogen and 92.3 percent by mass of carbon
how many types of covalent r there
how many covalent bond r there
JArim
they are three 3
TYPES OF COVALENT BOND-POLAR BOND-NON POLAR BOND-DOUBLE BOND-TRIPPLE BOND. There are three types of covalent bond depending upon the number of shared electron pairs. A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is called a "Single Covalent bond.
Usman
what is an atom
why is an atom
Rabiu
Atom is indivisible particles which take place in chemical reactions
Samuel
OK
what is neck mi nut
what is half reaction?
wat is the chemical formular for zinc hydrozide
Zn(OH-)2
Pookieman
what is atomicity
A 45 ml of ph=1,hcl was reacted with a 55l ml of ph=13, naoh solution . what is the final ph
what is coordination number
coordination number is the number of atoms or ions immediately surrounding a central atom in a complex or crystal
Chidera
what is isotope
Bukar
who is the father of chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier. Father of modern chemistry
Yapi
Lavoisier
Simbiat
What is geometric isomerism
jo
Lakshmi
pls I don't really know teach me
Joel
geometric isomerism are molecules that are locked into their spatial position with respect to one another due to a double Bond or ring structure
Chidera
Chromatography is a physical method of seperation where by mixtures that are in two phrases are separated