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  • The Dissolution Process
  • Electrolytes
  • Solubility
  • Colligative Properties
  • Colloids
This figure shows an underwater photo of a colorful coral reef.
Coral reefs, such as this one at the Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, are vital to the ecosystem of earth’s oceans but are threatened by climate change and dissolved pollution. Marine life depends on the specific chemical composition of the complex mixture we know as seawater. (credit: modification of work by “USFWS – Pacific Region”/Wikimedia Commons)

Coral reefs are home to about 25% of all marine species. They are being threatened by climate change, oceanic acidification, and water pollution, all of which change the composition of the solution we know as seawater. Dissolved oxygen in seawater is critical for sea creatures, but as the oceans warm, oxygen becomes less soluble. As the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the oceans increases, contributing to oceanic acidification. Coral reefs are particularly sensitive to the acidification of the ocean, since the exoskeletons of the coral polyps are soluble in acidic solutions. Humans contribute to the changing of seawater composition by allowing agricultural runoff and other forms of pollution to affect our oceans.

Solutions are crucial to the processes that sustain life and to many other processes involving chemical reactions. In this chapter, we will consider the nature of solutions, and examine factors that determine whether a solution will form and what properties it may have. In addition, we will discuss colloids—systems that resemble solutions but consist of dispersions of particles somewhat larger than ordinary molecules or ions.

Questions & Answers

mention some examples of ester
Chinenye Reply
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
Rozzi Reply
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
Bassidi Reply
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
legend Reply
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
Nadeen Reply
bunubyyvyhinuvgtvbjnjnygtcrc
Nadeen
yvcrzezalakhhehuzhbshsunakakoaak
Nadeen
what is poh and ph
Amarachi Reply
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
Austin Reply
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
Michael Reply
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
david Reply
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
Sa Reply
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
Bakanya Reply
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken
what is the electrolysis of sulphuric acid
Bakanya Reply
why is electrolysis difficult using solid lead chloride
Bakanya
what is heat formation
Biefon Reply
what are atoms
Happy Reply
this are small substances that form together and complained one
Belvine
okay gud
Bol
what's covalent bonding
Basil Reply
Covalent bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. These bonds mostly occur between nonmetals or between two of the same (or similar) elements.
Haile
covalent bonding is the mutual sharing of electrons between two element in a molecule, usually it involves non metals as they are less ionic and more electronegative than metals( ionic). and these bonds have high enthalpy of formation. and are strong bonds than most of the bond.
Chiranjeev
covalent bonding involves both nonmetals where there is complete sharing of electrons on the outermost energy level
david
I don't understand
Belvine

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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