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  • Precipitation and Dissolution
  • Lewis Acids and Bases
  • Multiple Equilibria
An image is shown of a cluster of clear crystals, showing primarily cubic and some octahedral shapes. A large cubic crystal at the center of the photograph has a deep emerald green center with deep purple corners and a small royal blue region just right of center. A smaller cubic crystal to its left shows purple corners and edges with royal blue coloration toward the center. Similar coloration is seen in other crystals in the structure, though most of the smaller crystals are clear and colorless.
The mineral fluorite (CaF 2 ) is deposited through a precipitation process. Note that pure fluorite is colorless, and that the color in this sample is due to the presence of other metals in the crystal.

In [link] , we see a close-up image of the mineral fluorite, which is commonly used as a semiprecious stone in many types of jewelry because of its striking appearance. These solid deposits of fluorite are formed through a process called hydrothermal precipitation. In this process, the fluorite remains dissolved in solution, usually in hot water heated by volcanic activity deep below the earth, until conditions arise that allow the mineral to come out of solution and form a deposit. These deposit-forming conditions can include a change in temperature of the solution, availability of new locations to form a deposit such as a rock crevice, contact between the solution and a reactive substance such as certain types of rock, or a combination of any of these factors.

We previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation (such as the fluorite deposit in [link] ) will occur.

Questions & Answers

what is d meaning of organic chemistry
Elizabeth Reply
it's a compound that comprises of hydrocarbon
Omoru
what iz alkanol
icha Reply
alkanol there are organic compounds with the functional group of ROH and relative molecular formula (CnH2n+1+OH)
Omoru
ok tnk u
icha
you are welcome
Omoru
What's alkaline soil
Amoo Reply
a system in which only energy is transferred between the system and the surrounding is called?
Ani Reply
which Element exhibit diagonal relationship with aluminum
Ani
following processes: Solid phosphorus pentachloride decomposes to liquid phosphorus trichloride and chlorine gas b. Deep blue solid copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate is heated to drive off water vapor to form white solid copper(II) sulfate
Hisham Reply
How to know periodic table oftend
Ahmed Reply
u can know it through singing it as song it simple
Elizabeth
how to get atomic number of an element
Ogunleye Reply
how do you solve the examples in a much more explanatory way
Ogunleye
it seems by multiplying d number of d element by 2
Elizabeth
E.g like carbon 6*2=12 so d atomic number is 12
Elizabeth
The reaction of aceto nitrile with propane in the presence of the acid
Explain this paragraph in short
Manish Reply
What is solid state?
Manish Reply
What is chemical reaction
Manish
transforming reactants to product(s)
Andre
process
Andre
solid state is composed of tightly particles and it has a definite shape and volume
Elizabeth
Example of Lewis acid
Chidera Reply
Example of Lewis acid
Chidera
Chlorine
Mikidad
Anything with an empty orbital... the hydrogen ion is the most common example. BH3 is the typical example, but any metal in a coordination complex can be considered a Lewis acid.
Eszter
okay thanks
Jovial
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulfide.How many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide
Soni Reply
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulphide how many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide?
Soni
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulphide how many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide?
Soni
2Al+3S=Al2S3
galina
m(Al)=100×27×2/150=36g
galina
150 comes from?
Soni
thank you very much
Soni
molar mass of Al2S3
galina
150.158
thiru
what's periodic table
Agnes
Why can't atom be created or destroyed
Jacaranda Reply
matter simply converts to pure energy
that's nice
Meshach
explain how to distinguish ethanol from a sample of ethanoic acid by chemical test
Alice Reply
explain how ethanol can be distinguished from ethanoic acid by chemical test
Alice
Using a suitable experiment, describe how diffusion occurs in gases.
Melody Reply
when the excited energy which are in gaseous state collides with another to liberate from one place to another
Meshach

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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