# 6.4 Electronic structure of atoms (electron configurations)  (Page 2/15)

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The arrangement of electrons in the orbitals of an atom is called the electron configuration    of the atom. We describe an electron configuration with a symbol that contains three pieces of information ( [link] ):

1. The number of the principal quantum shell, n ,
2. The letter that designates the orbital type (the subshell, l ), and
3. A superscript number that designates the number of electrons in that particular subshell.

For example, the notation 2 p 4 (read "two–p–four") indicates four electrons in a p subshell ( l = 1) with a principal quantum number ( n ) of 2. The notation 3 d 8 (read "three–d–eight") indicates eight electrons in the d subshell (i.e., l = 2) of the principal shell for which n = 3.

## The aufbau principle

To determine the electron configuration for any particular atom, we can “build” the structures in the order of atomic numbers. Beginning with hydrogen, and continuing across the periods of the periodic table, we add one proton at a time to the nucleus and one electron to the proper subshell until we have described the electron configurations of all the elements. This procedure is called the Aufbau principle    , from the German word Aufbau (“to build up”). Each added electron occupies the subshell of lowest energy available (in the order shown in [link] ), subject to the limitations imposed by the allowed quantum numbers according to the Pauli exclusion principle. Electrons enter higher-energy subshells only after lower-energy subshells have been filled to capacity. [link] illustrates the traditional way to remember the filling order for atomic orbitals. Since the arrangement of the periodic table is based on the electron configurations, [link] provides an alternative method for determining the electron configuration. The filling order simply begins at hydrogen and includes each subshell as you proceed in increasing Z order. For example, after filling the 3 p block up to Ar, we see the orbital will be 4s (K, Ca), followed by the 3 d orbitals.

We will now construct the ground-state electron configuration and orbital diagram for a selection of atoms in the first and second periods of the periodic table. Orbital diagrams are pictorial representations of the electron configuration, showing the individual orbitals and the pairing arrangement of electrons. We start with a single hydrogen atom (atomic number 1), which consists of one proton and one electron. Referring to [link] or [link] , we would expect to find the electron in the 1 s orbital. By convention, the ${m}_{s}=+\frac{1}{2}$ value is usually filled first. The electron configuration and the orbital diagram are:

what is molecule
What is the generic name for the compound
what is the formular for methane
CH4 , it is the simplest alkane
Abdelkarim
what is the formula for alkaline
Olom
hi
Yusuf
I wish to learn to more of chemistry, can someone please teach me.
Yusuf
what is zero gravity
every object is that zero gravity
Rabiu
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Abdelkarim
Alright. .good job
Rabiu
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
Abdelkarim
what is molecule?
Olom
what is lattice energy
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Marina
am fine
Agbo
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid
Define organic chemistry
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
Abdelkarim
what's matter
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Abdelkarim
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Abdelkarim
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
Abdelkarim
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
Getrude
what is electrolysis
good equation
Aliyu
differenciate between fat and oil