# 5.3 Enthalpy  (Page 5/25)

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## Using enthalpy of combustion

As [link] suggests, the combustion of gasoline is a highly exothermic process. Let us determine the approximate amount of heat produced by burning 1.00 L of gasoline, assuming the enthalpy of combustion of gasoline is the same as that of isooctane, a common component of gasoline. The density of isooctane is 0.692 g/mL.

## Solution

Starting with a known amount (1.00 L of isooctane), we can perform conversions between units until we arrive at the desired amount of heat or energy. The enthalpy of combustion of isooctane provides one of the necessary conversions. [link] gives this value as −5460 kJ per 1 mole of isooctane (C 8 H 18 ).

Using these data,

$1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1000\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{0.692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}{114\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{-5460\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{kJ}}{1\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\overline{)\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}=-3.31\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\text{kJ}$

The combustion of 1.00 L of isooctane produces 33,100 kJ of heat. (This amount of energy is enough to melt 99.2 kg, or about 218 lbs, of ice.)

Note: If you do this calculation one step at a time, you would find:

$\begin{array}{l}\\ 1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{L}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 1.00\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{3}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mL}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}6.07\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{mol}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\\ 692\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{g}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}-3.31\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{4}\text{kJ}\end{array}$

How much heat is produced by the combustion of 125 g of acetylene?

6.25 $×$ 10 3 kJ

## Emerging algae-based energy technologies (biofuels)

As reserves of fossil fuels diminish and become more costly to extract, the search is ongoing for replacement fuel sources for the future. Among the most promising biofuels are those derived from algae ( [link] ). The species of algae used are nontoxic, biodegradable, and among the world’s fastest growing organisms. About 50% of algal weight is oil, which can be readily converted into fuel such as biodiesel. Algae can yield 26,000 gallons of biofuel per hectare—much more energy per acre than other crops. Some strains of algae can flourish in brackish water that is not usable for growing other crops. Algae can produce biodiesel, biogasoline, ethanol, butanol, methane, and even jet fuel.

According to the US Department of Energy, only 39,000 square kilometers (about 0.4% of the land mass of the US or less than $\frac{1}{7}$ of the area used to grow corn) can produce enough algal fuel to replace all the petroleum-based fuel used in the US. The cost of algal fuels is becoming more competitive—for instance, the US Air Force is producing jet fuel from algae at a total cost of under \$5 per gallon. For more on algal fuel, see http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/feb/13/algae-solve-pentagon-fuel-problem. The process used to produce algal fuel is as follows: grow the algae (which use sunlight as their energy source and CO 2 as a raw material); harvest the algae; extract the fuel compounds (or precursor compounds); process as necessary (e.g., perform a transesterification reaction to make biodiesel); purify; and distribute ( [link] ).

what do you mean by d block ,give more details element
Define chemical formula
they are the mathematical representation of chemicals I guess
Uche
Bohr model of hydrogen atom
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nagesh
what is the main reaction between sodium and chlorine
when a sodium atom is transferred an electron to a chloride atom forming a sodium cation and a chlorde anoin both ions are compltely valence shells and a energetically more stable this reaction is extremely more exothermic producing a bright yellow light abd a great deal of heat energy
sani
well what kind of sodium
coland
sodium chloride
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thanks
sani
BABARINDE
hydrogen reacting with water
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Modern Electronic Theory
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew
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Simon
Moecules are groups of atoms
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udoh
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Ogbu