# 5.3 Enthalpy  (Page 4/25)

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Enthalpy changes are typically tabulated for reactions in which both the reactants and products are at the same conditions. A standard state    is a commonly accepted set of conditions used as a reference point for the determination of properties under other different conditions. For chemists, the IUPAC standard state refers to materials under a pressure of 1 bar and solutions at 1 M, and does not specify a temperature. Many thermochemical tables list values with a standard state of 1 atm. Because the Δ H of a reaction changes very little with such small changes in pressure (1 bar = 0.987 atm), Δ H values (except for the most precisely measured values) are essentially the same under both sets of standard conditions. We will include a superscripted “o” in the enthalpy change symbol to designate standard state. Since the usual (but not technically standard) temperature is 298.15 K, we will use a subscripted “298” to designate this temperature. Thus, the symbol $\left(\text{Δ}{H}_{298}^{°}\right)$ is used to indicate an enthalpy change for a process occurring under these conditions. (The symbol Δ H is used to indicate an enthalpy change for a reaction occurring under nonstandard conditions.)

The enthalpy changes for many types of chemical and physical processes are available in the reference literature, including those for combustion reactions, phase transitions, and formation reactions. As we discuss these quantities, it is important to pay attention to the extensive nature of enthalpy and enthalpy changes. Since the enthalpy change for a given reaction is proportional to the amounts of substances involved, it may be reported on that basis (i.e., as the Δ H for specific amounts of reactants). However, we often find it more useful to divide one extensive property (Δ H ) by another (amount of substance), and report a per-amount intensive value of Δ H , often “normalized” to a per-mole basis. (Note that this is similar to determining the intensive property specific heat from the extensive property heat capacity, as seen previously.)

## Enthalpy of combustion

Standard enthalpy of combustion $\left(\text{Δ}{H}_{C}^{\text{°}}\right)$ is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance burns (combines vigorously with oxygen) under standard state conditions; it is sometimes called “heat of combustion.” For example, the enthalpy of combustion of ethanol, −1366.8 kJ/mol, is the amount of heat produced when one mole of ethanol undergoes complete combustion at 25 °C and 1 atmosphere pressure, yielding products also at 25 °C and 1 atm.

${\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}\text{OH}\left(l\right)+3{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{CO}}_{2}+3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\phantom{\rule{3em}{0ex}}\text{Δ}{H}_{298}^{°}=\text{−1366.8 kJ}$

Enthalpies of combustion for many substances have been measured; a few of these are listed in [link] . Many readily available substances with large enthalpies of combustion are used as fuels, including hydrogen, carbon (as coal or charcoal), and hydrocarbons (compounds containing only hydrogen and carbon), such as methane, propane, and the major components of gasoline.

Standard Molar Enthalpies of Combustion
Substance Combustion Reaction Enthalpy of Combustion, $\text{Δ}{H}_{c}^{°}$ $\left(\frac{\text{kJ}}{\text{mol}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{at}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}25\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{°C}\right)$
carbon $\text{C}\left(s\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$ −393.5
hydrogen ${\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −285.8
magnesium $\text{Mg}\left(s\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{MgO}\left(s\right)$ −601.6
sulfur $\text{S}\left(s\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{SO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$ −296.8
carbon monoxide $\text{CO}\left(g\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{1}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$ −283.0
methane ${\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)+2{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −890.8
acetylene ${\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}\left(g\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{5}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}2{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −1301.1
ethanol ${\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{5}\text{OH}\left(l\right)+3{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+3{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −1366.8
methanol ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{OH}\left(l\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{3}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −726.1
isooctane ${\text{C}}_{8}{\text{H}}_{18}\left(l\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}\frac{25}{2}\phantom{\rule{0.1em}{0ex}}{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}8{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+9{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)$ −5461

what are oxidation numbers
pls what is electrolysis
Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are decomposed (broken down) into simpler substances when an electric current is passed through them. ... Electricity is the flow of electrons or ions. For electrolysis to work, the compound must contain ions.
AZEEZ
thanks
Idowu
what is the basicity of an atom
basicity is the number of replaceable Hydrogen atoms in a Molecule. in H2SO4, the basicity is 2. in Hcl, the basicity is 1
Inemesit
how to solve oxidation number
mention some examples of ester
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
bunubyyvyhinuvgtvbjnjnygtcrc
yvcrzezalakhhehuzhbshsunakakoaak
what is poh and ph
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken