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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the structure and properties of an amine
  • Describe the structure and properties of an amide

Amines are molecules that contain carbon-nitrogen bonds. The nitrogen atom in an amine has a lone pair of electrons and three bonds to other atoms, either carbon or hydrogen. Various nomenclatures are used to derive names for amines, but all involve the class-identifying suffix –ine as illustrated here for a few simple examples:

Three structures are shown, each with a red, central N atom which has a pair of electron dots indicated in red above the N atoms. The first structure is labeled methyl amine. To the left of the N, a C H subscript 3 group is bonded. H atoms are bonded to the right and bottom of the central N atom. The second structure is labeled dimethyl amine. This structure has C H subscript 3 groups bonded to the left and right of the N atom and a single H atom is bonded below. The third structure is labeled trimethyl amine, which has C H subscript 3 groups bonded to the left, right, and below the central N atom.

In some amines, the nitrogen atom replaces a carbon atom in an aromatic hydrocarbon. Pyridine ( [link] ) is one such heterocyclic amine. A heterocyclic compound contains atoms of two or more different elements in its ring structure.

A molecular structure is shown. A ring of five C atoms and one N atom is shown with alternating double bonds. Single H atoms are bonded, appearing at the outside of the ring on each C atom. The N atom has an unshared electron pair shown on the N atom on the outer side of the ring. The N atom, electron dot pair, and bonds connected to it in the ring are shown in red.
The illustration shows one of the resonance structures of pyridine.

Dna in forensics and paternity

The genetic material for all living things is a polymer of four different molecules, which are themselves a combination of three subunits. The genetic information, the code for developing an organism, is contained in the specific sequence of the four molecules, similar to the way the letters of the alphabet can be sequenced to form words that convey information. The information in a DNA sequence is used to form two other types of polymers, one of which are proteins. The proteins interact to form a specific type of organism with individual characteristics.

A genetic molecule is called DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. The four molecules that make up DNA are called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a single- or double-ringed molecule containing nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen called a nitrogenous base. Each base is bonded to a five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose. The sugar is in turn bonded to a phosphate group ( −PO 4 3− ) When new DNA is made, a polymerization reaction occurs that binds the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar group of a second nucleotide. The nitrogenous bases of each nucleotide stick out from this sugar-phosphate backbone. DNA is actually formed from two such polymers coiled around each other and held together by hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous bases. Thus, the two backbones are on the outside of the coiled pair of strands, and the bases are on the inside. The shape of the two strands wound around each other is called a double helix (see [link] ).

It probably makes sense that the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA of a cat differs from those of a dog. But it is also true that the sequences of the DNA in the cells of two individual pugs differ. Likewise, the sequences of DNA in you and a sibling differ (unless your sibling is an identical twin), as do those between you and an unrelated individual. However, the DNA sequences of two related individuals are more similar than the sequences of two unrelated individuals, and these similarities in sequence can be observed in various ways. This is the principle behind DNA fingerprinting, which is a method used to determine whether two DNA samples came from related (or the same) individuals or unrelated individuals.

Diagram a shows DNA as a double helix composed of the nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine paired up along a sugar-phosphate backbone. The helix has labeled 3 prime and 5 prime directions or ends. In diagram b, the molecular level arrangement of the bases connected by hydrogen bonding within the sugar-phosphate backbone is shown. Adenine is shown with hydrogen bonding to thymine and similarly the linkage via hydrogen bonding between cytosine and guanine is shown. Again, 3 prime and 5 prime directional information is provided. In diagram c, the bonding between a nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate is shown.
DNA is an organic molecule and the genetic material for all living organisms. (a) DNA is a double helix consisting of two single DNA strands hydrogen bonded together at each nitrogenous base. (b) This detail shows the hydrogen bonding (dotted lines) between nitrogenous bases on each DNA strand and the way in which each nucleotide is joined to the next, forming a backbone of sugars and phosphate groups along each strand. (c) This detail shows the structure of one of the four nucleotides that makes up the DNA polymer. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base (a double-ring molecule, in this case), a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a phosphate group.

Using similarities in sequences, technicians can determine whether a man is the father of a child (the identity of the mother is rarely in doubt, except in the case of an adopted child and a potential birth mother). Likewise, forensic geneticists can determine whether a crime scene sample of human tissue, such as blood or skin cells, contains DNA that matches exactly the DNA of a suspect.

Questions & Answers

what is molecule
Olom Reply
What is the generic name for the compound
Orisanmi Reply
what is the formular for methane
Tamaranimiweremi Reply
CH4 , it is the simplest alkane
Abdelkarim
what is the formula for alkaline
Olom
hi
Yusuf
I wish to learn to more of chemistry, can someone please teach me.
Yusuf
what is zero gravity
Blessing Reply
every object is that zero gravity
Rabiu
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Abdelkarim
Alright. .good job
Rabiu
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
Abdelkarim
what is molecule?
Olom
what is lattice energy
Getrude Reply
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Emmanuel Reply
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
Progress Reply
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
Victoria Reply
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
Thankgod Reply
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
Hazard Reply
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Abel Reply
alright , how about you
Marina
am fine
Agbo
your name is Agbo?
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid
Define organic chemistry
Edward Reply
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
Abdelkarim
what's matter
Joshua Reply
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Abdelkarim
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Abdelkarim
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
Abdelkarim
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
Getrude
what is electrolysis
Rabi Reply
good equation
Aliyu
differenciate between fat and oil
Mustapha Reply
Practice Key Terms 2

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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