20.1 Hydrocarbons  (Page 10/22)

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Explain why unbranched alkenes can form geometric isomers while unbranched alkanes cannot. Does this explanation involve the macroscopic domain or the microscopic domain?

Unbranched alkanes have free rotation about the C–C bonds, yielding all orientations of the substituents about these bonds equivalent, interchangeable by rotation. In the unbranched alkenes, the inability to rotate about the $\text{C}=\text{C}$ bond results in fixed (unchanging) substituent orientations, thus permitting different isomers. Since these concepts pertain to phenomena at the molecular level, this explanation involves the microscopic domain.

Explain why these two molecules are not isomers:

Explain why these two molecules are not isomers:

They are the same compound because each is a saturated hydrocarbon containing an unbranched chain of six carbon atoms.

How does the carbon-atom hybridization change when polyethylene is prepared from ethylene?

Write the Lewis structure and molecular formula for each of the following hydrocarbons:

(a) hexane

(b) 3-methylpentane

(c) cis -3-hexene

(d) 4-methyl-1-pentene

(e) 3-hexyne

(f) 4-methyl-2-pentyne

(a) C 6 H 14
;
(b) C 6 H 14
;
(c) C 6 H 12
;
(d) C 6 H 12
;
(e) C 6 H 10
;
(f) C 6 H 10

Write the chemical formula, condensed formula, and Lewis structure for each of the following hydrocarbons:

(a) heptane

(b) 3-methylhexane

(c) trans -3-heptene

(d) 4-methyl-1-hexene

(e) 2-heptyne

(f) 3,4-dimethyl-1-pentyne

Give the complete IUPAC name for each of the following compounds:

(a) CH 3 CH 2 CBr 2 CH 3

(b) (CH 3 ) 3 CCl

(c)

(d) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv {\text{CH CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv \text{CH}$

(e)

(f)

(g) ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{2}{\text{CHCH}}_{2}\text{CH}={\text{CH}}_{2}$

(a) 2,2-dibromobutane; (b) 2-chloro-2-methylpropane; (c) 2-methylbutane; (d) 1-butyne; (e) 4-fluoro-4-methyl-1-octyne; (f) trans -1-chloropropene; (g) 5-methyl-1-pentene

Give the complete IUPAC name for each of the following compounds:

(a) (CH 3 ) 2 CHF

(b) CH 3 CHClCHClCH 3

(c)

(d) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}={\text{CHCH}}_{3}$

(e)

(f) ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{3}{\text{CCH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv \text{CH}$

Butane is used as a fuel in disposable lighters. Write the Lewis structure for each isomer of butane.

Write Lewis structures and name the five structural isomers of hexane.

Write Lewis structures for the cis–trans isomers of ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{CH}=\text{CHCl.}$

Write structures for the three isomers of the aromatic hydrocarbon xylene, C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 .

Isooctane is the common name of the isomer of C 8 H 18 used as the standard of 100 for the gasoline octane rating:

(a) What is the IUPAC name for the compound?

(b) Name the other isomers that contain a five-carbon chain with three methyl substituents.

(a) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; (b) 2,2,3-trimethylpentane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, and 2,3,3-trimethylpentane:

Write Lewis structures and IUPAC names for the alkyne isomers of C 4 H 6 .

Write Lewis structures and IUPAC names for all isomers of C 4 H 9 Cl.

Name and write the structures of all isomers of the propyl and butyl alkyl groups.

Write the structures for all the isomers of the –C 5 H 11 alkyl group.

In the following, the carbon backbone and the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms are shown in condensed form:

Write Lewis structures and describe the molecular geometry at each carbon atom in the following compounds:

(a) cis -3-hexene

(b) cis -1-chloro-2-bromoethene

(c) 2-pentyne

(d) trans - 6 -ethyl-7-methyl-2-octene

Benzene is one of the compounds used as an octane enhancer in unleaded gasoline. It is manufactured by the catalytic conversion of acetylene to benzene:
$3{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{6}{\text{H}}_{6}$

Draw Lewis structures for these compounds, with resonance structures as appropriate, and determine the hybridization of the carbon atoms in each.

In acetylene, the bonding uses sp hybrids on carbon atoms and s orbitals on hydrogen atoms. In benzene, the carbon atoms are sp 2 hybridized.

Teflon is prepared by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Write the equation that describes the polymerization using Lewis symbols.

Write two complete, balanced equations for each of the following reactions, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures.

(a) 1 mol of 1-butyne reacts with 2 mol of iodine.

(b) Pentane is burned in air.

(a) $\text{CH}\equiv {\text{CCH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}+2{\text{I}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CHI}}_{2}{\text{CI}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}$
;
(b) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}+8{\text{O}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}5{\text{CO}}_{2}+{\text{6H}}_{2}\text{O}$

Write two complete, balanced equations for each of the following reactions, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures.

(a) 2-butene reacts with chlorine.

(b) benzene burns in air.

What mass of 2-bromopropane could be prepared from 25.5 g of propene? Assume a 100% yield of product.

65.2 g

Acetylene is a very weak acid; however, it will react with moist silver(I) oxide and form water and a compound composed of silver and carbon. Addition of a solution of HCl to a 0.2352-g sample of the compound of silver and carbon produced acetylene and 0.2822 g of AgCl.

(a) What is the empirical formula of the compound of silver and carbon?

(b) The production of acetylene on addition of HCl to the compound of silver and carbon suggests that the carbon is present as the acetylide ion, ${\text{C}}_{2}{}^{2-}$ . Write the formula of the compound showing the acetylide ion.

Ethylene can be produced by the pyrolysis of ethane:
${\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{6}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{4}+{\text{H}}_{2}$

How many kilograms of ethylene is produced by the pyrolysis of 1.000 $×$ 10 3 kg of ethane, assuming a 100.0% yield?

9.328 $×$ 10 2 kg

How to mix chemical
why the elements of group 7 are called Noble gases
they aren't. group 8 is the noble gasses. they are snobs that don't mix with others like nobles, they have full valence shells so they don't form bonds with other elements easily. nobles don't mingle with the common folk...
Jessica
the group 7elements are not the noble gases . according to modern periodic group 18 are called noble gases elements because their valence shell are completely field so that they can't gain or loss electron so they are not able to involve in any chemical reaction.
Leena
what is chemistry
chemistry is the branch of science which deal with the composition of matter
SHEDRACK
discuss the orbital stracture of the following methane,ethane,ethylene,acetylene
Why phosphurs in solid state have one atom but in gas state have four atoms
Are nuclear reactions both exothermic reactions and endothermic reactions or what?
to what volume must 8.32 NaOH be diluted to its analytical concentration 0.20 M
weight in mg 1.76 mole of I
Sheriza
the types of hydrocarbons
u are mad go and open textbook
Emmanuel
hahahahahahahahahahahahaha
Jessica
aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
Osakue
stupid boy Emmanuel
Ohanaka
saturated and unsaturated
Leena
I don't use to see the messages
how can you determine the electronegativity of a compound or in molecules
when u move from left to right in a periodic table the negativity increases
reeza
Are you trying to say that the elctronegativity increases down the group and decreases across the period?
Ohanaka
yes and also increases across the period
reeza
for instance when you look at one group of elements in a periodic table electronegativity decreases when you go across the table electronegativity increases. hydrogen is more electronegative than sodium, potassium of that group. oxygen is more electronegative than carbon.
reeza
i hope we all know that organic compounds have carbon as their back bone
OK,Thank you so much for the answer. I am happy now
can I ask you a question now
Osakue
yes
hanna
what is the oxidation number of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur
Osakue
5, -2 & -2
hanna
What is an atom?
is a smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist
Osakue
Osakue
it is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units by any chemical reaction
An atom is the smallest part of an element dat can take part in chemical reaction.
Idris
an atom is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction nd still retain it chemical properties
Precious
Is the smallest particles of an element that take part in chemical reaction without been change
John
what are the branches of an atomic mass
Still waiting for answers for a very long time now
that question is very strong oooo
Osakue
most of the questions I asked wasn't answered what's the problem guys?
hi, there is no problems ooo
Osakue
between H2SO4 and HCL which is the strongest dehydrating agent ?
Ibirogba
HCl is the strongest dehydrating agent
Osakue
ᴡʜᴀᴛ ᴡɪʟʟ ᴏʙsᴇʀᴠᴇᴅ ɪғ ʟᴇᴀᴅ(ɪɪ)ɴɪᴛʀᴀᴛᴇs ɪs ᴀᴅᴅᴇᴅ ᴏɴ ᴛᴏ sᴏᴅɪᴜᴍ ɪᴏᴅɪᴅᴇ sᴏʟᴜᴛɪᴏɴ