# 20.1 Hydrocarbons  (Page 10/22)

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Explain why unbranched alkenes can form geometric isomers while unbranched alkanes cannot. Does this explanation involve the macroscopic domain or the microscopic domain?

Unbranched alkanes have free rotation about the C–C bonds, yielding all orientations of the substituents about these bonds equivalent, interchangeable by rotation. In the unbranched alkenes, the inability to rotate about the $\text{C}=\text{C}$ bond results in fixed (unchanging) substituent orientations, thus permitting different isomers. Since these concepts pertain to phenomena at the molecular level, this explanation involves the microscopic domain.

Explain why these two molecules are not isomers:

Explain why these two molecules are not isomers:

They are the same compound because each is a saturated hydrocarbon containing an unbranched chain of six carbon atoms.

How does the carbon-atom hybridization change when polyethylene is prepared from ethylene?

Write the Lewis structure and molecular formula for each of the following hydrocarbons:

(a) hexane

(b) 3-methylpentane

(c) cis -3-hexene

(d) 4-methyl-1-pentene

(e) 3-hexyne

(f) 4-methyl-2-pentyne

(a) C 6 H 14
;
(b) C 6 H 14
;
(c) C 6 H 12
;
(d) C 6 H 12
;
(e) C 6 H 10
;
(f) C 6 H 10

Write the chemical formula, condensed formula, and Lewis structure for each of the following hydrocarbons:

(a) heptane

(b) 3-methylhexane

(c) trans -3-heptene

(d) 4-methyl-1-hexene

(e) 2-heptyne

(f) 3,4-dimethyl-1-pentyne

Give the complete IUPAC name for each of the following compounds:

(a) CH 3 CH 2 CBr 2 CH 3

(b) (CH 3 ) 3 CCl

(c)

(d) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv {\text{CH CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv \text{CH}$

(e)

(f)

(g) ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{2}{\text{CHCH}}_{2}\text{CH}={\text{CH}}_{2}$

(a) 2,2-dibromobutane; (b) 2-chloro-2-methylpropane; (c) 2-methylbutane; (d) 1-butyne; (e) 4-fluoro-4-methyl-1-octyne; (f) trans -1-chloropropene; (g) 5-methyl-1-pentene

Give the complete IUPAC name for each of the following compounds:

(a) (CH 3 ) 2 CHF

(b) CH 3 CHClCHClCH 3

(c)

(d) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{CH}={\text{CHCH}}_{3}$

(e)

(f) ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{3}{\text{CCH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv \text{CH}$

Butane is used as a fuel in disposable lighters. Write the Lewis structure for each isomer of butane.

Write Lewis structures and name the five structural isomers of hexane.

Write Lewis structures for the cis–trans isomers of ${\text{CH}}_{3}\text{CH}=\text{CHCl.}$

Write structures for the three isomers of the aromatic hydrocarbon xylene, C 6 H 4 (CH 3 ) 2 .

Isooctane is the common name of the isomer of C 8 H 18 used as the standard of 100 for the gasoline octane rating:

(a) What is the IUPAC name for the compound?

(b) Name the other isomers that contain a five-carbon chain with three methyl substituents.

(a) 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; (b) 2,2,3-trimethylpentane, 2,3,4-trimethylpentane, and 2,3,3-trimethylpentane:

Write Lewis structures and IUPAC names for the alkyne isomers of C 4 H 6 .

Write Lewis structures and IUPAC names for all isomers of C 4 H 9 Cl.

Name and write the structures of all isomers of the propyl and butyl alkyl groups.

Write the structures for all the isomers of the –C 5 H 11 alkyl group.

In the following, the carbon backbone and the appropriate number of hydrogen atoms are shown in condensed form:

Write Lewis structures and describe the molecular geometry at each carbon atom in the following compounds:

(a) cis -3-hexene

(b) cis -1-chloro-2-bromoethene

(c) 2-pentyne

(d) trans - 6 -ethyl-7-methyl-2-octene

Benzene is one of the compounds used as an octane enhancer in unleaded gasoline. It is manufactured by the catalytic conversion of acetylene to benzene:
$3{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{6}{\text{H}}_{6}$

Draw Lewis structures for these compounds, with resonance structures as appropriate, and determine the hybridization of the carbon atoms in each.

In acetylene, the bonding uses sp hybrids on carbon atoms and s orbitals on hydrogen atoms. In benzene, the carbon atoms are sp 2 hybridized.

Teflon is prepared by the polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene. Write the equation that describes the polymerization using Lewis symbols.

Write two complete, balanced equations for each of the following reactions, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures.

(a) 1 mol of 1-butyne reacts with 2 mol of iodine.

(b) Pentane is burned in air.

(a) $\text{CH}\equiv {\text{CCH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}+2{\text{I}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CHI}}_{2}{\text{CI}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}$
;
(b) ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{3}+8{\text{O}}_{2}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}5{\text{CO}}_{2}+{\text{6H}}_{2}\text{O}$

Write two complete, balanced equations for each of the following reactions, one using condensed formulas and one using Lewis structures.

(a) 2-butene reacts with chlorine.

(b) benzene burns in air.

What mass of 2-bromopropane could be prepared from 25.5 g of propene? Assume a 100% yield of product.

65.2 g

Acetylene is a very weak acid; however, it will react with moist silver(I) oxide and form water and a compound composed of silver and carbon. Addition of a solution of HCl to a 0.2352-g sample of the compound of silver and carbon produced acetylene and 0.2822 g of AgCl.

(a) What is the empirical formula of the compound of silver and carbon?

(b) The production of acetylene on addition of HCl to the compound of silver and carbon suggests that the carbon is present as the acetylide ion, ${\text{C}}_{2}{}^{2-}$ . Write the formula of the compound showing the acetylide ion.

Ethylene can be produced by the pyrolysis of ethane:
${\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{6}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{C}}_{2}{\text{H}}_{4}+{\text{H}}_{2}$

How many kilograms of ethylene is produced by the pyrolysis of 1.000 $×$ 10 3 kg of ethane, assuming a 100.0% yield?

9.328 $×$ 10 2 kg

what is zero gravity
every object is that zero gravity
Rabiu
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Abdelkarim
Alright. .good job
Rabiu
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
Abdelkarim
what is lattice energy
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Marina
am fine
Agbo
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid
Define organic chemistry
It is the chemistry concerning molecules that have Carbon skeletons and hydrogen atoms. We find organic molecules like in plants, living derivatives, etc.
Abdelkarim
what's matter
Anything that can be to cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1
Abdelkarim
Anything that has mass and can reflect or absorb waves. GOD created everything from nothing only he can destroy it as prooved.
Abdelkarim
Suppose you have a cube of side 10 cm. Then you start cutting from all dimensions to halve. So you end up with 4 cubes of 5 cm side. Repeat with one of the cubes. 10, 5, 2.5, .., 0 1st 2nd 3rd Nth Un= a(r) ^ n-1 0= 10 (1/2)^n-1 0= (1/2) ^ n-1 Log0= (n-1) Log(1/2) - infinity =( n-1)
Abdelkarim
matter is anything that has mass,volume and can occupy space
Getrude
what is electrolysis
good equation
Aliyu
differenciate between fat and oil
what is the meaning of coordinate bond
It is the alternative for dative which is a covalent bond but both electrons of the pair are from shared from the same (one) atom.
Abdelkarim
can someone please tell me what does an Entropy means
what is chemistry?
what is chemistry
Afiwape
chemistry is a brach of science which deal with the study of the nature, composition structure and with the force that hold the structure together and the change matter will undergo undedifferent conditions
Afiwape
And god has created everything from nothing
Abdelkarim