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A six carbon hydrocarbon ring structural formula is shown. Each C atom is bonded to only one H atom. A circle is at the center of the ring.
This condensed formula shows the unique bonding structure of benzene.

There are many derivatives of benzene. The hydrogen atoms can be replaced by many different substituents. Aromatic compounds more readily undergo substitution reactions than addition reactions; replacement of one of the hydrogen atoms with another substituent will leave the delocalized double bonds intact. The following are typical examples of substituted benzene derivatives:

Three structural formulas are shown. The first is labeled toluene. This molecule has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which five of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right of the ring, the C atom that does not have a bonded H atom has a red C H subscript 3 group attached. A circle is at the center of the ring. The second is labeled xylene. This molecule has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right and right of the ring, the two C atoms that do not have bonded H atoms have C H subscript 3 groups attached. These C H subscript 3 groups appear in red. A circle is at the center of the ring. The third is labeled styrene. This molecule has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which five of the carbon atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right of the ring, the carbon that does not have a bonded H atom has a red C H double bond C H subscript 2 group attached. A circle is at the center of the ring.

Toluene and xylene are important solvents and raw materials in the chemical industry. Styrene is used to produce the polymer polystyrene.

Structure of aromatic hydrocarbons

One possible isomer created by a substitution reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom attached to the aromatic ring of toluene with a chlorine atom is shown here. Draw two other possible isomers in which the chlorine atom replaces a different hydrogen atom attached to the aromatic ring:

Two structural formulas are shown. The first has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the carbon atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right of the ring, the carbon that does not have a bonded H atom has a C H subscript 3 group attached. The C to the lower right has a C l atom attached. A circle is at the center of the ring. The second molecule has a hexagon with a circle inside. From a vertex of the hexagon at the upper right a C H subscript 3 group is attached. From the vertex at the lower right, a C l atom is attached.

Solution

Since the six-carbon ring with alternating double bonds is necessary for the molecule to be classified as aromatic, appropriate isomers can be produced only by changing the positions of the chloro-substituent relative to the methyl-substituent:

Two pairs of structural formulas are shown. The first has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right of the ring, the C atom that does not have a bonded H atom has a C H subscript 3 group attached. The C atom to the right has a C l atom attached. A circle is at the center of the ring. The second molecule in the first pair has a hexagon with a circle inside. From a vertex of the hexagon at the upper right a C H subscript 3 group is attached. From the vertex at the right, a C l atom is attached. The second pair first shows a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. A C l atom is attached to the left-most C atom and a C H subscript 3 group is attached to the right-most C atom. A circle is at the center of the ring. The second molecule in the pair has a hexagon with a circle inside. A C H subscript 3 group is attached to a vertex on the right side of the hexagon and to a vertex on the left side, a C l atom is bonded.

Check your learning

Draw three isomers of a six-membered aromatic ring compound substituted with two bromines.

Answer:

Three pairs of structural formulas are shown. The first has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right and right of the ring, the two C atoms that do not have bonded H atoms have one B r atom bonded each. A circle is at the center of the ring. Beneath this structure, a similar structure is shown which has a hexagon with a circle inside. From vertices of the hexagon at the upper right and right single B r atoms are attached. The second has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right and lower right of the ring, the two C atoms that do not have bonded H atoms have a single B r atom bonded each. A circle is at the center of the ring. Beneath this structure, a similar structure is shown which has a hexagon with a circle inside. From vertices of the hexagon at the upper right and lower right single B r atoms are attached. The third has a six carbon hydrocarbon ring in which four of the C atoms are each bonded to only one H atom. At the upper right and lower left of the ring, the two C atoms that do not have bonded H atoms have B r atoms bonded. A circle is at the center of the ring. Beneath this structure, a similar structure is shown which has a hexagon with a circle inside. From vertices of the hexagon at the upper right and lower left, single B r atoms are attached.
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Key concepts and summary

Strong, stable bonds between carbon atoms produce complex molecules containing chains, branches, and rings. The chemistry of these compounds is called organic chemistry. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen. The alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons—that is, hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. Alkenes contain one or more carbon-carbon double bonds. Alkynes contain one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds. Aromatic hydrocarbons contain ring structures with delocalized π electron systems.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the chemical formula and Lewis structure of the following, each of which contains five carbon atoms:

(a) an alkane

(b) an alkene

(c) an alkyne

There are several sets of answers; one is:
(a) C 5 H 12
A chain of five C atoms with single bonds is shown. Each C atom has an H atom bonded above and below it. The C atoms on the end of the chain have a third H atom bonded to them each. ;
(b) C 5 H 10
A chain of five C atoms is shown. The first C atom (from left to right) forms a single bond with the second C atom. The second C atom forms a single bond with the third C atom. The third C atom forms a double bond with the fourth C atom. The fourth C atom forms a single bond to the fifth C atom. The first C atom (from left to right) as three H atoms bonded to it. The second C atom has two H atoms bonded to it. The third C atom has one H atom bonded to it. The fourth C atom has one H atom bonded to it. The fifth C atom as three H atoms bonded to it. ;
(c) C 5 H 8
A chain of five carbon atoms is shown. The first C atom (from left to right) forms a single bond with the second C atom. The second C atom forms a single bond with the third C atom. The third C atom forms a triple bond with the fourth C atom. The fourth C atom forms a single bond to the fifth C atom. The first C atom has three H atoms bonded to it. The second C atom has two H atoms bonded to it. The fifth C atom has three H atoms bonded to it.

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What is the difference between the hybridization of carbon atoms’ valence orbitals in saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons?

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On a microscopic level, how does the reaction of bromine with a saturated hydrocarbon differ from its reaction with an unsaturated hydrocarbon? How are they similar?

Both reactions result in bromine being incorporated into the structure of the product. The difference is the way in which that incorporation takes place. In the saturated hydrocarbon, an existing C–H bond is broken, and a bond between the C and the Br can then be formed. In the unsaturated hydrocarbon, the only bond broken in the hydrocarbon is the π bond whose electrons can be used to form a bond to one of the bromine atoms in Br 2 (the electrons from the Br–Br bond form the other C–Br bond on the other carbon that was part of the π bond in the starting unsaturated hydrocarbon).

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On a microscopic level, how does the reaction of bromine with an alkene differ from its reaction with an alkyne? How are they similar?

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Questions & Answers

An atom or group of atoms bearing anelectrical charge such as the sodium and chlorine atoms in a salt solution.
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aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
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aromatic hydrocarbon aliphatic hydrocarbon
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for instance when you look at one group of elements in a periodic table electronegativity decreases when you go across the table electronegativity increases. hydrogen is more electronegative than sodium, potassium of that group. oxygen is more electronegative than carbon.
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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