# 20.1 Hydrocarbons  (Page 8/22)

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## Alkynes

Hydrocarbon molecules with one or more triple bonds are called alkynes ; they make up another series of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Two carbon atoms joined by a triple bond are bound together by one σ bond and two π bonds. The sp -hybridized carbons involved in the triple bond have bond angles of 180°, giving these types of bonds a linear, rod-like shape.

The simplest member of the alkyne series is ethyne, C 2 H 2 , commonly called acetylene. The Lewis structure for ethyne, a linear molecule, is:

The IUPAC nomenclature for alkynes is similar to that for alkenes except that the suffix -yne is used to indicate a triple bond in the chain. For example, ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CH}}_{2}\text{C}\equiv \text{CH}$ is called 1-butyne.

## Structure of alkynes

Describe the geometry and hybridization of the carbon atoms in the following molecule:

## Solution

Carbon atoms 1 and 4 have four single bonds and are thus tetrahedral with sp 3 hybridization. Carbon atoms 2 and 3 are involved in the triple bond, so they have linear geometries and would be classified as sp hybrids.

Identify the hybridization and bond angles at the carbon atoms in the molecule shown:

carbon 1: sp , 180°; carbon 2: sp , 180°; carbon 3: sp 2 , 120°; carbon 4: sp 2 , 120°; carbon 5: sp 3 , 109.5°

Chemically, the alkynes are similar to the alkenes. Since the $\text{C}\equiv \text{C}$ functional group has two π bonds, alkynes typically react even more readily, and react with twice as much reagent in addition reactions. The reaction of acetylene with bromine is a typical example:

Acetylene and the other alkynes also burn readily. An acetylene torch takes advantage of the high heat of combustion for acetylene.

## Aromatic hydrocarbons

Benzene, C 6 H 6 , is the simplest member of a large family of hydrocarbons, called aromatic hydrocarbons . These compounds contain ring structures and exhibit bonding that must be described using the resonance hybrid concept of valence bond theory or the delocalization concept of molecular orbital theory. (To review these concepts, refer to the earlier chapters on chemical bonding). The resonance structures for benzene, C 6 H 6 , are:

Valence bond theory describes the benzene molecule and other planar aromatic hydrocarbon molecules as hexagonal rings of sp 2 -hybridized carbon atoms with the unhybridized p orbital of each carbon atom perpendicular to the plane of the ring. Three valence electrons in the sp 2 hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom and the valence electron of each hydrogen atom form the framework of σ bonds in the benzene molecule. The fourth valence electron of each carbon atom is shared with an adjacent carbon atom in their unhybridized p orbitals to yield the π bonds. Benzene does not, however, exhibit the characteristics typical of an alkene. Each of the six bonds between its carbon atoms is equivalent and exhibits properties that are intermediate between those of a C–C single bond and a $\text{C}=\text{C}$ double bond. To represent this unique bonding, structural formulas for benzene and its derivatives are typically drawn with single bonds between the carbon atoms and a circle within the ring as shown in [link] .

what is the main reaction between sodium and chlorine
when a sodium atom is transferred an electron to a chloride atom forming a sodium cation and a chlorde anoin both ions are compltely valence shells and a energetically more stable this reaction is extremely more exothermic producing a bright yellow light abd a great deal of heat energy
sani
well what kind of sodium
coland
sodium chloride
coland
Tyropanoic acid and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of gallstones). Trade names include Bilopaque, Lumopaque, Tyropaque, and Bilopac. The molecule contains three heavy iodine atoms which obstruct X-rays in the same way as the calcium in
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Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) is a commonly used synonym for 7-ethyl-2-methyl-4-undecanyl sulfate sodium salt which is anionic surfactant that is the active component of the sclerosant drug Sotradecol. It is commonly used in the treatment of varicose and spider veins of the leg, during the procedu
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Sodium stibogluconate, sold under the brand name Pentostam among others, is a medication used to treat leishmaniasis. This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. Some combination of miltefosine, paramycin and liposomal amphotericin B; however, may be recommended due to
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Sodium picosulfate (INN, also known as sodium picosulphate) is a Contact stimulant laxative used as a treatment for constipation or to prepare the large bowel before colonoscopy or surgery. It is sold under the trade names Sodipic Picofast, Laxoberal, Laxoberon, Purg-Odan, Picolax, Guttalax, Namilax
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Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays. The drug is given orally and the resulting contrast allows for easy resolution of the bile duct and gall bladder. Other uses Although not FDA approved, ipodate sodium has been used to treat Graves'
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Sodium ferric gluconate complex (brand name ferrlecit by Sanofi), is an intravenously administered iron product indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. It is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis, those undergoing erythropoietin therapy, and/or patients who have chronic k
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Dehydrocholic acid is a synthetic bile acid, manufactured by the oxidation of cholic acid. It acts as a hydrocholeretic, increasing bile output to clear increased bile acid load.
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid. Its conjugate base is ethylenediaminetetraacetate. It is widely used to dissolve limescale. Its usefulness arises because of its role as a hexadentate ("s
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Sodium aurothiomalate (INN, known in the United States as gold sodium thiomalate) is a gold compound that is used for its immunosuppressive anti-rheumatic effects. Along with an orally-administered gold salt, auranofin, it is one of only two gold compounds currently employed in modern medicine. Med
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Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The molecular formula of this chemical compound is C6H7NaO6. As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, it is known as a mineral ascorbate. It has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin
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Diatrizoic acid (or its anionic form, diatrizoate), also known as amidotrizoic acid, or 3,5-diacetamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, is a radiocontrast agent containing iodine. Trade names include Hypaque, Gastrografin, Iothalmate and Urografin, the latter being a combination of the sodium and meglum
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Sodium acetrizoate (rINN, trade names Urokon, Triurol and Salpix), the sodium salt of acetrizoic acid, is a high-osmolality, water-soluble, iodine-based radiographic contrast medium no longer in clinical use. Acetrizoate was developed by V.H. Wallingford of Mallinckrodt, and introduced in 1950; it
coland
i think some was missed
coland
what chlorine L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alpha-GPC rapidly delive
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Choline Theophyllinate , also known as oxtriphylline, is a cough medicine derived from xanthine that acts as a bronchodilator to open up airways in the lung. Chemically, it is a salt of choline and Theophylline. It classifies as an expectorant. The drug is available under the brand names Choledyl an
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Choline (/ˈkoʊlin/) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the
coland
thanks
sani
hydrogen reacting with water
what is matter
apart from those device there is there any device
how many elements do we have
Modern Electronic Theory
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew
what is molecules
what atoms
Simon
Moecules are groups of atoms
atom is the smallest part of an element or matter that indivisible
Ese
What is collision theory
hello guys am new here
what is the si unit for energy
joules
udoh
what is Charles law
Ogbu
how do mass of solvent be gram or kilogram ?
by converting
Andrew
its a force a gas exerts on the wall of the container
compressed it is
Andrew
what is gas pressure
the pressure is the amount of Gas that is compressed in the container. in other words because of the gas that is compressed in the container there is pressure on it.
Andrew