# 20.1 Hydrocarbons  (Page 5/22)

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Note that alkyl groups do not exist as stable independent entities. They are always a part of some larger molecule. The location of an alkyl group on a hydrocarbon chain is indicated in the same way as any other substituent:

Alkanes are relatively stable molecules, but heat or light will activate reactions that involve the breaking of C–H or C–C single bonds. Combustion is one such reaction:

${\text{CH}}_{4}\left(g\right)+2{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)+2{\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(\text{g}\right)$

Alkanes burn in the presence of oxygen, a highly exothermic oxidation-reduction reaction that produces carbon dioxide and water. As a consequence, alkanes are excellent fuels. For example, methane, CH 4 , is the principal component of natural gas. Butane, C 4 H 10 , used in camping stoves and lighters is an alkane. Gasoline is a liquid mixture of continuous- and branched-chain alkanes, each containing from five to nine carbon atoms, plus various additives to improve its performance as a fuel. Kerosene, diesel oil, and fuel oil are primarily mixtures of alkanes with higher molecular masses. The main source of these liquid alkane fuels is crude oil, a complex mixture that is separated by fractional distillation. Fractional distillation takes advantage of differences in the boiling points of the components of the mixture (see [link] ). You may recall that boiling point is a function of intermolecular interactions, which was discussed in the chapter on solutions and colloids.

In a substitution reaction    , another typical reaction of alkanes, one or more of the alkane’s hydrogen atoms is replaced with a different atom or group of atoms. No carbon-carbon bonds are broken in these reactions, and the hybridization of the carbon atoms does not change. For example, the reaction between ethane and molecular chlorine depicted here is a substitution reaction:

The C–Cl portion of the chloroethane molecule is an example of a functional group    , the part or moiety of a molecule that imparts a specific chemical reactivity. The types of functional groups present in an organic molecule are major determinants of its chemical properties and are used as a means of classifying organic compounds as detailed in the remaining sections of this chapter.

## Alkenes

Organic compounds that contain one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms are described as unsaturated. You have likely heard of unsaturated fats. These are complex organic molecules with long chains of carbon atoms, which contain at least one double bond between carbon atoms. Unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules that contain one or more double bonds are called alkenes . Carbon atoms linked by a double bond are bound together by two bonds, one σ bond and one π bond. Double and triple bonds give rise to a different geometry around the carbon atom that participates in them, leading to important differences in molecular shape and properties. The differing geometries are responsible for the different properties of unsaturated versus saturated fats.

mention some examples of ester
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
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what is poh and ph
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken
what is the electrolysis of sulphuric acid
why is electrolysis difficult using solid lead chloride
Bakanya
what is heat formation
what are atoms
this are small substances that form together and complained one
Belvine
okay gud
Bol
what's covalent bonding
Covalent bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between two or more atoms. These bonds mostly occur between nonmetals or between two of the same (or similar) elements.
Haile
covalent bonding is the mutual sharing of electrons between two element in a molecule, usually it involves non metals as they are less ionic and more electronegative than metals( ionic). and these bonds have high enthalpy of formation. and are strong bonds than most of the bond.
Chiranjeev
covalent bonding involves both nonmetals where there is complete sharing of electrons on the outermost energy level
david
I don't understand
Belvine