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The figure illustrates four ways to represent molecules for molecules of methane, ethane, and pentane. In the first row of the figure, Lewis structural formulas show element symbols and bonds between atoms. Methane has a central C atom with four H atoms bonded to it. Ethane has a C atom with three H atoms bonded to it. The C atom is also bonded to another C atom with three H atoms bonded to it. Pentane has a C atom with three H atoms bonded to it. The C atom is bonded to another C atom with two H atoms bonded to it. The C atom is bonded to another C atom with two H atoms bonded to it. The C atom is bonded to another C atom with two H atoms bonded to it. The C atom is bonded to another C atom with three H atoms bonded to it. In the second row, ball-and-stick models are shown. In these representations, bonds are represented with sticks, and elements are represented with balls. Carbon atoms are black and hydrogen atoms are white in this image. In the third row, space-filling models are shown. In these models, atoms are enlarged and pushed together, without sticks to represent bonds. The molecule names and structural formulas are provided in the fourth row. Methane is named and represented with a condensed structural formula as C H subscript 4. Ethane is named and represented with two structural formulas C H subscript 3 C H subscript 3 and C subscript 2 H subscript 6. Pentane is named and represented as both C H subscript 3 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 3 and C subscript 5 H subscript 12.
Pictured are the Lewis structures, ball-and-stick models, and space-filling models for molecules of methane, ethane, and pentane.

A common method used by organic chemists to simplify the drawings of larger molecules is to use a skeletal structure    (also called a line-angle structure). In this type of structure, carbon atoms are not symbolized with a C, but represented by each end of a line or bend in a line. Hydrogen atoms are not drawn if they are attached to a carbon. Other atoms besides carbon and hydrogen are represented by their elemental symbols. [link] shows three different ways to draw the same structure.

In this figure, a hydrocarbon molecule is shown in three ways. First, an expanded formula shows all individual carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and bonds in a branched hydrocarbon molecule. An initial C atom is bonded to three H atoms. The C atom is bonded to another C atom in the chain. This second C atom is bonded to one H atom and another C atom above the chain. The C atom bonded above the second C atom in the chain is bonded to three H atoms. The second C atom in the chain is bonded to a third C atom in the chain. This third C atom is bonded to on H atom and another C atom below the chain. This C atom is bonded to two H atoms and another C atom below the chain. This second C atom below the chain is bonded to three H atoms. The third C atom in the chain is bonded to a fourth C atom in the chain. The fourth C atom is bonded to two H atoms and a fifth C atom. The fifth C atom is bonded to two H atoms and a sixth C atom. The sixth C atom is bonded to three H atoms. Second, a condensed formula shows each carbon atom of the molecule in clusters with the hydrogen atoms bonded to it, leaving C H, C H subscript 2, and C H subscript 3 groups with bonds between them. The structure shows a C H subscript 3 group bonded to a C H group. The C H group is bonded above to a C H subscript 3 group. The C H group is also bonded to another C H group. This C H group is bonded to a C H subscript 2 group below and a C H subscript 3 group below that. This C H group is also bonded to a C H subscript 2 group which is bonded to another C H subscript 2 group. This C H subscript 2 group is bonded to a final C H subscript 2 group. The final structure in the figure is a skeletal structure which includes only line segments arranged to indicate the structure of the molecule.
The same structure can be represented three different ways: an expanded formula, a condensed formula, and a skeletal structure.

Drawing skeletal structures

Draw the skeletal structures for these two molecules:

Figure a shows a branched molecule with C H subscript 3 bonded to C with C H subscript 3 groups bonded both above and below it. To the right of the central C, a C H is bonded which has a C H subscript 3 group bonded above and to the right and below and to the right. Figure b shows a straight chain molecule composed of C H subscript 3 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 3.

Solution

Each carbon atom is converted into the end of a line or the place where lines intersect. All hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon atoms are left out of the structure (although we still need to recognize they are there):

Figure a shows a branched skeleton structure that looks like a plus sign with line segments extending up and to the right and down and to the left of the rightmost point of the plus sign. Figure b appears in a zig zag pattern made with six line segments. The segments rise, fall, rise, fall, rise, and fall moving left to right across the figure.

Check your learning

Draw the skeletal structures for these two molecules:

Figure a shows five C H subscript 2 groups and one C H group bonded in a hexagonal ring. A C H subscript 3 group appears above and to the right of the ring, bonded to the ring on the C H group appearing at the upper right portion of the ring. In b, a straight chain molecule composed of C H subscript 3 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 2 C H subscript 3 is shown.

Answer:


In a, a hexagon with a vertex at the top is shown. The vertex just to the right has a line segment attached that extends up and to the right. In b, a zig zag pattern is shown in which line segments rise, fall, rise, fall, and rise moving left to right.
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Interpreting skeletal structures

Identify the chemical formula of the molecule represented here:

This figure shows a pentagon with a vertex pointing right, from which a line segment extends that has two line segments attached at its right end, one extending up and to the right, and the other extending down and to the right.

Solution

There are eight places where lines intersect or end, meaning that there are eight carbon atoms in the molecule. Since we know that carbon atoms tend to make four bonds, each carbon atom will have the number of hydrogen atoms that are required for four bonds. This compound contains 16 hydrogen atoms for a molecular formula of C 8 H 16 .

Location of the hydrogen atoms:

In this figure a ring composed of four C H subscript 2 groups and one C H group in a pentagonal shape is shown. From the C H group, which is at the right side of the pentagon, a C H is bonded. From this C H, a C H subscript 3 group is bonded above and to the right and a second is bonded below and to the right.

Check your learning

Identify the chemical formula of the molecule represented here:

A skeleton model is shown with a zig zag pattern that rises, falls, rises, and falls again left to right through the center of the molecule. From the two risen points, line segments extend both up and down, creating four branches.

Answer:

C 9 H 20

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All alkanes are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and have similar bonds, structures, and formulas; noncyclic alkanes all have a formula of C n H 2n+2 . The number of carbon atoms present in an alkane has no limit. Greater numbers of atoms in the molecules will lead to stronger intermolecular attractions (dispersion forces) and correspondingly different physical properties of the molecules. Properties such as melting point and boiling point ( [link] ) usually change smoothly and predictably as the number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the molecules change.

Properties of Some Alkanes Physical properties for C 4 H 10 and heavier molecules are those of the normal isomer , n -butane, n -pentane, etc.
Alkane Molecular Formula Melting Point (°C) Boiling Point (°C) Phase at STP STP indicates a temperature of 0 °C and a pressure of 1 atm. Number of Structural Isomers
methane CH 4 –182.5 –161.5 gas 1
ethane C 2 H 6 –183.3 –88.6 gas 1
propane C 3 H 8 –187.7 –42.1 gas 1
butane C 4 H 10 –138.3 –0.5 gas 2
pentane C 5 H 12 –129.7 36.1 liquid 3
hexane C 6 H 14 –95.3 68.7 liquid 5
heptane C 7 H 16 –90.6 98.4 liquid 9
octane C 8 H 18 –56.8 125.7 liquid 18
nonane C 9 H 20 –53.6 150.8 liquid 35
decane C 10 H 22 –29.7 174.0 liquid 75
tetradecane C 14 H 30 5.9 253.5 solid 1858
octadecane C 18 H 38 28.2 316.1 solid 60,523

Hydrocarbons with the same formula, including alkanes, can have different structures. For example, two alkanes have the formula C 4 H 10 : They are called n -butane and 2-methylpropane (or isobutane), and have the following Lewis structures:

Questions & Answers

what is the main reaction between sodium and chlorine
Akeem Reply
when a sodium atom is transferred an electron to a chloride atom forming a sodium cation and a chlorde anoin both ions are compltely valence shells and a energetically more stable this reaction is extremely more exothermic producing a bright yellow light abd a great deal of heat energy
sani
well what kind of sodium
coland
sodium chloride
coland
Tyropanoic acid and its salt sodium tyropanoate are radiocontrast agents used in cholecystography (X-ray diagnosis of gallstones). Trade names include Bilopaque, Lumopaque, Tyropaque, and Bilopac. The molecule contains three heavy iodine atoms which obstruct X-rays in the same way as the calcium in
coland
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) is a commonly used synonym for 7-ethyl-2-methyl-4-undecanyl sulfate sodium salt which is anionic surfactant that is the active component of the sclerosant drug Sotradecol. It is commonly used in the treatment of varicose and spider veins of the leg, during the procedu
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Sodium stibogluconate, sold under the brand name Pentostam among others, is a medication used to treat leishmaniasis. This includes leishmaniasis of the cutaneous, visceral, and mucosal types. Some combination of miltefosine, paramycin and liposomal amphotericin B; however, may be recommended due to
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Sodium picosulfate (INN, also known as sodium picosulphate) is a Contact stimulant laxative used as a treatment for constipation or to prepare the large bowel before colonoscopy or surgery. It is sold under the trade names Sodipic Picofast, Laxoberal, Laxoberon, Purg-Odan, Picolax, Guttalax, Namilax
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Ipodate sodium (sodium iopodate) is an iodine-containing radiopaque contrast media used for X-rays. The drug is given orally and the resulting contrast allows for easy resolution of the bile duct and gall bladder. Other uses Although not FDA approved, ipodate sodium has been used to treat Graves'
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Sodium ferric gluconate complex (brand name ferrlecit by Sanofi), is an intravenously administered iron product indicated in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. It is frequently used in patients undergoing hemodialysis, those undergoing erythropoietin therapy, and/or patients who have chronic k
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Dehydrocholic acid is a synthetic bile acid, manufactured by the oxidation of cholic acid. It acts as a hydrocholeretic, increasing bile output to clear increased bile acid load.
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Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid. Its conjugate base is ethylenediaminetetraacetate. It is widely used to dissolve limescale. Its usefulness arises because of its role as a hexadentate ("s
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Sodium aurothiomalate (INN, known in the United States as gold sodium thiomalate) is a gold compound that is used for its immunosuppressive anti-rheumatic effects. Along with an orally-administered gold salt, auranofin, it is one of only two gold compounds currently employed in modern medicine. Med
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Sodium ascorbate is one of a number of mineral salts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The molecular formula of this chemical compound is C6H7NaO6. As the sodium salt of ascorbic acid, it is known as a mineral ascorbate. It has not been demonstrated to be more bioavailable than any other form of vitamin
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Diatrizoic acid (or its anionic form, diatrizoate), also known as amidotrizoic acid, or 3,5-diacetamido-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, is a radiocontrast agent containing iodine. Trade names include Hypaque, Gastrografin, Iothalmate and Urografin, the latter being a combination of the sodium and meglum
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Sodium acetrizoate (rINN, trade names Urokon, Triurol and Salpix), the sodium salt of acetrizoic acid, is a high-osmolality, water-soluble, iodine-based radiographic contrast medium no longer in clinical use. Acetrizoate was developed by V.H. Wallingford of Mallinckrodt, and introduced in 1950; it
coland
i think some was missed
coland
what chlorine L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Alpha-GPC rapidly delive
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Choline Theophyllinate , also known as oxtriphylline, is a cough medicine derived from xanthine that acts as a bronchodilator to open up airways in the lung. Chemically, it is a salt of choline and Theophylline. It classifies as an expectorant. The drug is available under the brand names Choledyl an
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Choline (/ˈkoʊlin/) is a water-soluble vitamin. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion). The cation appears in the
coland
thanks
sani
hydrogen reacting with water
Iyenge Reply
what is matter
Godgift Reply
apart from those device there is there any device
Eke Reply
how many elements do we have
ARUOTURE Reply
Modern Electronic Theory
Levi Reply
a new way or an improvement in modern electrical products.
Andrew
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
Ngwu Reply
14400J
Ese
wrong question, go through it. oxygen cannot be produced.
Andrew
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
Valerie Reply
molecule
NARCOS_
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
Andrew
what is molecules
Kelly Reply
what atoms
Simon
Moecules are groups of atoms
Adewole
atom is the smallest part of an element or matter that indivisible
Ese
What is collision theory
Isah Reply
hello guys am new here
Andrew Reply
what is the si unit for energy
enow Reply
joules
udoh
what is Charles law
Ogbu
how do mass of solvent be gram or kilogram ?
Yussuf Reply
by converting
Andrew
its a force a gas exerts on the wall of the container
udoh Reply
compressed it is
Andrew
what is gas pressure
Sandra Reply
the pressure is the amount of Gas that is compressed in the container. in other words because of the gas that is compressed in the container there is pressure on it.
Andrew

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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