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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • State the periodic law and explain the organization of elements in the periodic table
  • Predict the general properties of elements based on their location within the periodic table
  • Identify metals, nonmetals, and metalloids by their properties and/or location on the periodic table

As early chemists worked to purify ores and discovered more elements, they realized that various elements could be grouped together by their similar chemical behaviors. One such grouping includes lithium (Li), sodium (Na), and potassium (K): These elements all are shiny, conduct heat and electricity well, and have similar chemical properties. A second grouping includes calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), and barium (Ba), which also are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, and have chemical properties in common. However, the specific properties of these two groupings are notably different from each other. For example: Li, Na, and K are much more reactive than are Ca, Sr, and Ba; Li, Na, and K form compounds with oxygen in a ratio of two of their atoms to one oxygen atom, whereas Ca, Sr, and Ba form compounds with one of their atoms to one oxygen atom. Fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I) also exhibit similar properties to each other, but these properties are drastically different from those of any of the elements above.

Dimitri Mendeleev in Russia (1869) and Lothar Meyer in Germany (1870) independently recognized that there was a periodic relationship among the properties of the elements known at that time. Both published tables with the elements arranged according to increasing atomic mass. But Mendeleev went one step further than Meyer: He used his table to predict the existence of elements that would have the properties similar to aluminum and silicon, but were yet unknown. The discoveries of gallium (1875) and germanium (1886) provided great support for Mendeleev’s work. Although Mendeleev and Meyer had a long dispute over priority, Mendeleev’s contributions to the development of the periodic table are now more widely recognized ( [link] ).

Figure A shows a photograph of Dimitri Mendeleev. Figure B shows the first periodic table developed by Mendeleev, which had eight groups and twelve periods. In the first group (—, R superscript plus sign 0) is the following information: H = 1, L i = 7, N a = 23, K = 39, (C u = 63), R b = 85, (A g = 108), C a = 183, (—),—, (A u = 199) —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. The second group (—, R 0) contains the following information: (not entry for period 1) B o = 9, 4, M g = 24, C a = 40, Z n = 65, S r = 87, C d = 112, B a = 187, —, —, H g = 200, —. Note the ach of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group three (—, R superscript one 0 superscript nine) contains the information: (no entry for period 1), B = 11, A l = 27, 8. — = 44, — = 68, ? Y t = 88, I n = 113, ? D I = 138, —, ? E r = 178, T l = 204, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group four (RH superscript four, R0 superscript eight) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), C = 12, B i = 28, T i = 48, — = 72, Z r = 90, S n = 118, ? C o = 140, ? L a = 180, P b = 207, T h = 231. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group five (R H superscript two, R superscript two 0 superscript five) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), N = 14, P = 31, V = 51, A s = 75, N b = 94, S b = 122, —, —, T a = 182, B l = 208, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group six (R H superscript two, R 0 superscript three) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), O = 16, S = 32, C r = 52, S o = 78, M o = 96, T o = 125, —, —, W = 184, —, U = 240. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group seven (R H , R superscript plus sing, 0 superscript 7) contains the following information: (no entry for period 1), F = 19, C l = 35, 5, M n = 55, B r = 80, — = 100, J = 127, —, —, —, —, —. Note that each of these entries corresponds to one of the twelve periods respectively. Group 8 (—, R 0 superscript four) contains the following information: (no entry for periods 1, 2, 3), in period 4: F o = 56, C o = 59, N i = 59, C u = 63, no entry for period five, in period 6: R u = 104, R h = 104, P d = 106, A g = 108, no entries for periods 7, 8 , or 9, in period 10: O s = 195, I r = 197, P t = 198, A u = 199, no entries for periods 11 or 12.
(a) Dimitri Mendeleev is widely credited with creating (b) the first periodic table of the elements. (credit a: modification of work by Serge Lachinov; credit b: modification of work by “Den fjättrade ankan”/Wikimedia Commons)

By the twentieth century, it became apparent that the periodic relationship involved atomic numbers rather than atomic masses. The modern statement of this relationship, the periodic law    , is as follows: the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers . A modern periodic table    arranges the elements in increasing order of their atomic numbers and groups atoms with similar properties in the same vertical column ( [link] ). Each box represents an element and contains its atomic number, symbol, average atomic mass, and (sometimes) name. The elements are arranged in seven horizontal rows, called periods or series    , and 18 vertical columns, called groups . Groups are labeled at the top of each column. In the United States, the labels traditionally were numerals with capital letters. However, IUPAC recommends that the numbers 1 through 18 be used, and these labels are more common. For the table to fit on a single page, parts of two of the rows, a total of 14 columns, are usually written below the main body of the table.

Questions & Answers

is methane a molecule
Okologwu Reply
yes
Miriam
no
rilwan
calculations for solubility
malachi Reply
Whats d IUPAC Numenclature of bromine
Emmanuel Reply
The common name is therefore propyl bromide . For the IUPAC name , the prefix for bromine (bromo) is combined with the name for a three-carbon chain (propane), preceded by a number identifying the carbon atom to which the Br atom is attached, so the IUPAC name is 1-bromopropane.
crystal
What is Quantum number
Derick Reply
what are the chemical properties of group IIA Element and their atomic structure?
NATHAN Reply
What is mixture
Azeez Reply
A mixture is a mix of substances that can be separated
Lillie
what is quantum number
Baba Reply
Hmm
kedis
I suck at chemistry I need a tutor
kedis
h20 hydrates, nitrogen/dry ice lowers pressure similar to space environment when heated at what location/temp.? +or-, expect location (xyz)
Brian
hey kedis,never say that u suck,u don't,all u need is to calm down,get the book and get the points,no need to read it word by word or a-z. ur good bro,u r veeeery intelligent
UDUJI
awwwww
Cereal
what's neuron?
Kelvin Reply
neuron or neutron?
John
cell of the nerve
Kamaluddeen
neuron
rilwan
prepare a solution of 1m iodine in 250mls of water
Dj Reply
Really
Wisdom
Hiiii am new here
Wisdom
Really
Wisdom
WHAT IS CHEMISTRY?
RJ
Chemistry is the study of matter
Wisdom
chemistry is the study of matter and changes it undergoes
Mercy
what is equilibrium
Fatai Reply
what is biology
Fatai
biology is said to be the science of studying life and living organism including theirs physical structure,chemical processes, molecular interaction development and evolution
David
atomic number of sodium
bose
that'll be 11
Kamaluddeen
ok
bose
anymore questions 😁
Franklin
re u writing jamb
bose
please, how man Bond are present when a methane under goes a complete combustion
moses Reply
Combustion of Methane The reactants are on the left side of the equation and the products are on the right. In the reaction, the bonds in the methane and oxygen come apart, the atoms rearrange and then re-bond to form water and carbon dioxide.
saidi
how is ethanol produced using ethene
Glory
Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The reaction is reversible, and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic. Only 5% of the ethene is converted intoethanol at each pass through the reactor
saidi
Ethanol can be made by reacting ethene (from cracking crude oil fractions) with steam. A catalyst of phosphoric acid is used to ensure a fast reaction. Notice that ethanol is the only product. The process is continuous – as long as ethene and steam are fed into one end of the reaction vessel, ethano
saidi
the mole concerpt and its tricks
Mary Reply
what are atoms
ola Reply
the individual elements of matter.
Reginald
tiny particles that make up a all matter.
Reginald
smallest particles of an element
Osuji
What is the meaning of hybridization
JOSEPH Reply
Differentiate between latent heat and specific latent heat of fusion and vaporization
Amos Reply
Ans: The amount of heat energy released or absorbed when a solid changing to liquid at atmospheric pressure at its melting point is known as the latent heat of fusion. while Vaporization of an element or compound is a phase transition from the liquid phase to vapor.
Acquah

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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