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Key concepts and summary

The transition metals are elements with partially filled d orbitals, located in the d -block of the periodic table. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. The type of chemistry used in the isolation of the elements from their ores depends upon the concentration of the element in its ore and the difficulty of reducing ions of the elements to the metals. Metals that are more active are more difficult to reduce.

Transition metals exhibit chemical behavior typical of metals. For example, they oxidize in air upon heating and react with elemental halogens to form halides. Those elements that lie above hydrogen in the activity series react with acids, producing salts and hydrogen gas. Oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of transition metal compounds in low oxidation states are basic. Halides and other salts are generally stable in water, although oxygen must be excluded in some cases. Most transition metals form a variety of stable oxidation states, allowing them to demonstrate a wide range of chemical reactivity.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements:

(a) Sc

(b) Ti

(c) Cr

(d) Fe

(e) Ru

(a) Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 1 ; (b) Ti: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 2 ; (c) Cr: [Ar]4 s 1 3 d 5 ; (d) Fe: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 6 ; (e) Ru: [Kr]5 s 2 4 d 6

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Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its ions:

(a) Ti

(b) Ti 2+

(c) Ti 3+

(d) Ti 4+

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Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its 3+ ions:

(a) La

(b) Sm

(c) Lu

(a) La: [Xe]6 s 2 5 d 1 , La 3+ : [Xe]; (b) Sm: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 6 , Sm 3+ : [Xe]4 f 5 ; (c) Lu: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 1 , Lu 3+ : [Xe]4 f 14

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Why are the lanthanoid elements not found in nature in their elemental forms?

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Which of the following elements is most likely to be used to prepare La by the reduction of La 2 O 3 : Al, C, or Fe? Why?

Al is used because it is the strongest reducing agent and the only option listed that can provide sufficient driving force to convert La(III) into La.

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Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent: VO 4 3 , CrO 4 2− , or MnO 4 ?

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Which of the following elements is most likely to form an oxide with the formula MO 3 : Zr, Nb, or Mo?

Mo

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The following reactions all occur in a blast furnace. Which of these are redox reactions?

(a) 3Fe 2 O 3 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 2Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(b) Fe 3 O 4 ( s ) + CO ( g ) 3FeO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(c) FeO ( s ) + CO ( g ) Fe ( l ) + CO 2 ( g )

(d) C ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g )

(e) C ( s ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2CO ( g )

(f) CaCO 3 ( s ) CaO ( s ) + CO 2 ( g )

(g) CaO ( s ) + SiO 2 ( s ) CaSiO 3 ( l )

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Why is the formation of slag useful during the smelting of iron?

The CaSiO 3 slag is less dense than the molten iron, so it can easily be separated. Also, the floating slag layer creates a barrier that prevents the molten iron from exposure to O 2 , which would oxidize the Fe back to Fe 2 O 3 .

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Would you expect an aqueous manganese(VII) oxide solution to have a pH greater or less than 7.0? Justify your answer.

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Questions & Answers

how can someone understand chemistry vividly
Mercy Reply
Maybe by reading proofs or practical work and application in modern world.
Abdelkarim
what is isotopes
Samuel Reply
whats de shape of water
Amara Reply
water has no shape because it's liquid
Wil
water is a shapeless, odourless, colourless and tasteless substance that only takes the shape of its container.
mikefred
i think they're referring to the molecular shape?
It has no shape but takes the shape of the container
kpadonu
what isthe maening pkw
Wilson Reply
introduction to chemistry for beginner
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noble
through out human history
marwan Reply
Yes?
Esther
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noble
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what
noble
is euglena a unicellular organ
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is euglena a unicellular organism
Agio
how is hydrogen can be heated
Buwembo Reply
what is difference between atom and molecule
Aqeela Reply
Atom is the smallest part of matter; it consists of equal number of protons and electrons. It may have neutrons. A molecule is a compound made of atoms covalently bonded.
Abdelkarim
does amoeba has structure
Mercy Reply
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kolawole Reply
what is the effect of green house on the earth 🌎
kolawole
what's an atom?
Davy Reply
it's the smallest unit of Matter
Orsine
atom
Eden
smallest part of an element
lydia
also, depending on its (atom's) structure, that is the amount of protons and neutrons and electrons, is the determining factors of what element it is.
Richard
is a smallast particals of an element
Buwembo
it is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction
Ayub
is the smallest part of an element
Jonathan
An atom is the smallest indivisible part of a matter
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Faisal Reply
differences between solid liquid and gaseous state
Ochei Reply
modification of John dalton atomic theory
Ochei
the differences between soliq liquid and gas is that in solid the particle are strongly bonded together by forces of cohesion and the particle are not able to move about but only vibrate in a fixed position but in liquid the particle are loosely bond together and the particle are able to move about
kolawole
2.4g of magnesium reacts with 0.3mol of hydrochloric acid write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b)Determine the limiting reactant
Sheldon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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