# 19.1 Occurrence, preparation, and properties of transition metals  (Page 11/27)

 Page 11 / 27

## Key concepts and summary

The transition metals are elements with partially filled d orbitals, located in the d -block of the periodic table. The reactivity of the transition elements varies widely from very active metals such as scandium and iron to almost inert elements, such as the platinum metals. The type of chemistry used in the isolation of the elements from their ores depends upon the concentration of the element in its ore and the difficulty of reducing ions of the elements to the metals. Metals that are more active are more difficult to reduce.

Transition metals exhibit chemical behavior typical of metals. For example, they oxidize in air upon heating and react with elemental halogens to form halides. Those elements that lie above hydrogen in the activity series react with acids, producing salts and hydrogen gas. Oxides, hydroxides, and carbonates of transition metal compounds in low oxidation states are basic. Halides and other salts are generally stable in water, although oxygen must be excluded in some cases. Most transition metals form a variety of stable oxidation states, allowing them to demonstrate a wide range of chemical reactivity.

## Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements:

(a) Sc

(b) Ti

(c) Cr

(d) Fe

(e) Ru

(a) Sc: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 1 ; (b) Ti: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 2 ; (c) Cr: [Ar]4 s 1 3 d 5 ; (d) Fe: [Ar]4 s 2 3 d 6 ; (e) Ru: [Kr]5 s 2 4 d 6

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its ions:

(a) Ti

(b) Ti 2+

(c) Ti 3+

(d) Ti 4+

Write the electron configurations for each of the following elements and its 3+ ions:

(a) La

(b) Sm

(c) Lu

(a) La: [Xe]6 s 2 5 d 1 , La 3+ : [Xe]; (b) Sm: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 6 , Sm 3+ : [Xe]4 f 5 ; (c) Lu: [Xe]6 s 2 4 f 14 5 d 1 , Lu 3+ : [Xe]4 f 14

Why are the lanthanoid elements not found in nature in their elemental forms?

Which of the following elements is most likely to be used to prepare La by the reduction of La 2 O 3 : Al, C, or Fe? Why?

Al is used because it is the strongest reducing agent and the only option listed that can provide sufficient driving force to convert La(III) into La.

Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent: ${\text{VO}}_{4}{}^{3},$ ${\text{CrO}}_{4}{}^{2-},$ or ${\text{MnO}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}\text{?}$

Which of the following elements is most likely to form an oxide with the formula MO 3 : Zr, Nb, or Mo?

Mo

The following reactions all occur in a blast furnace. Which of these are redox reactions?

(a) ${\text{3Fe}}_{2}{\text{O}}_{3}\left(s\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2Fe}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{4}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

(b) ${\text{Fe}}_{3}{\text{O}}_{4}\left(s\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{3FeO}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

(c) $\text{FeO}\left(s\right)+\text{CO}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{Fe}\left(l\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

(d) $\text{C}\left(s\right)+{\text{O}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

(e) $\text{C}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{2CO}\left(g\right)$

(f) ${\text{CaCO}}_{3}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{CaO}\left(s\right)+{\text{CO}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

(g) $\text{CaO}\left(s\right)+{\text{SiO}}_{2}\left(s\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{CaSiO}}_{3}\left(l\right)$

Why is the formation of slag useful during the smelting of iron?

The CaSiO 3 slag is less dense than the molten iron, so it can easily be separated. Also, the floating slag layer creates a barrier that prevents the molten iron from exposure to O 2 , which would oxidize the Fe back to Fe 2 O 3 .

Would you expect an aqueous manganese(VII) oxide solution to have a pH greater or less than 7.0? Justify your answer.

what is coordination number
who is the father of chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier. Father of modern chemistry
Yapi
What is geometric isomerism
jo
Lakshmi
pls I don't really know teach me
Joel
Chromatography is a physical method of seperation where by mixtures that are in two phrases are separated
What is chromatography?
meaning of electrode
is ion exchange and ion chromatography the same process?
Vivian
define boyes law and give the formula
define chemistry and it's properties
Esther
Boyle's law state that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportionally to it's volume. P=k/v P1v1=p2v2
MAUREE
Chemistry is the study of matter and it's properties..... It's deals with the composition that governors d use of matter..... Chemistry is also d study of chemical reaction of a substance and it's matter. Properties of chemistry Atom Elements Compound Molecules
MAUREE
chemistry seems more accurately defined as the measurement and study of the interaction / behavior that occurs between any given person place or thing or unit of measure, ie time and energy correlation
Elaine
Reactive metals are extracted by _______?
electrolytic reduction
Amisu
what is ionxide
What is isometrics
Molar mass of aluminum
why an equation should balanced?
in order to obey the law of conservation of mass
Ibrahim
why does the atomic radius increase across the period
preparation of hydrogen in the laboratory
state the dual nature of an electron
no you PunOko