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Chemistry end of chapter exercises

How do alkali metals differ from alkaline earth metals in atomic structure and general properties?

The alkali metals all have a single s electron in their outermost shell. In contrast, the alkaline earth metals have a completed s subshell in their outermost shell. In general, the alkali metals react faster and are more reactive than the corresponding alkaline earth metals in the same period.

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Why does the reactivity of the alkali metals decrease from cesium to lithium?

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Predict the formulas for the nine compounds that may form when each species in column 1 of [link] reacts with each species in column 2.

1 2
Na I
Sr Se
Al O


Na + I 2 2NaI 2Na + Se Na 2 Se 2Na + O 2 Na 2 O 2
Sr + I 2 SrI 2 Sr + Se SrSe 2Sr + O 2 2SrO
2Al + 3I 2 2AlI 3 2Al + 3Se Al 2 Se 3 4Al + 3O 2 2Al 2 O 3

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Predict the best choice in each of the following. You may wish to review the chapter on electronic structure for relevant examples.

(a) the most metallic of the elements Al, Be, and Ba

(b) the most covalent of the compounds NaCl, CaCl 2 , and BeCl 2

(c) the lowest first ionization energy among the elements Rb, K, and Li

(d) the smallest among Al, Al + , and Al 3+

(e) the largest among Cs + , Ba 2+ , and Xe

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Sodium chloride and strontium chloride are both white solids. How could you distinguish one from the other?

The possible ways of distinguishing between the two include infrared spectroscopy by comparison of known compounds, a flame test that gives the characteristic yellow color for sodium (strontium has a red flame), or comparison of their solubilities in water. At 20 °C, NaCl dissolves to the extent of 35.7 g 100 mL compared with 53.8 g 100 mL for SrCl 2 . Heating to 100 °C provides an easy test, since the solubility of NaCl is 39.12 g 100 mL , but that of SrCl 2 is 100.8 g 100 mL . Density determination on a solid is sometimes difficult, but there is enough difference (2.165 g/mL NaCl and 3.052 g/mL SrCl 2 ) that this method would be viable and perhaps the easiest and least expensive test to perform.

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The reaction of quicklime, CaO, with water produces slaked lime, Ca(OH) 2 , which is widely used in the construction industry to make mortar and plaster. The reaction of quicklime and water is highly exothermic:
CaO ( s ) + H 2 O ( l ) Ca ( OH ) 2 ( s ) Δ H = −350 kJ mol −1

(a) What is the enthalpy of reaction per gram of quicklime that reacts?

(b) How much heat, in kilojoules, is associated with the production of 1 ton of slaked lime?

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Write a balanced equation for the reaction of elemental strontium with each of the following:

(a) oxygen

(b) hydrogen bromide

(c) hydrogen

(d) phosphorus

(e) water

(a) 2Sr ( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2SrO ( s ) ; (b) Sr ( s ) + 2HBr ( g ) SrBr 2 ( s ) + H 2 ( g ) ; (c) Sr ( s ) + H 2 ( g ) SrH 2 ( s ) ; (d) 6Sr ( s ) + P 4 ( s ) 2Sr 3 P 2 ( s ) ; (e) Sr ( s ) + 2H 2 O ( l ) Sr ( OH ) 2 ( a q ) + H 2 ( g )

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How many moles of ionic species are present in 1.0 L of a solution marked 1.0 M mercury(I) nitrate?

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What is the mass of fish, in kilograms, that one would have to consume to obtain a fatal dose of mercury, if the fish contains 30 parts per million of mercury by weight? (Assume that all the mercury from the fish ends up as mercury(II) chloride in the body and that a fatal dose is 0.20 g of HgCl 2 .) How many pounds of fish is this?

11 lb

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The elements sodium, aluminum, and chlorine are in the same period.

(a) Which has the greatest electronegativity?

(b) Which of the atoms is smallest?

(c) Write the Lewis structure for the simplest covalent compound that can form between aluminum and chlorine.

(d) Will the oxide of each element be acidic, basic, or amphoteric?

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Does metallic tin react with HCl?

Yes, tin reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas.

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What is tin pest, also known as tin disease?

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Compare the nature of the bonds in PbCl 2 to that of the bonds in PbCl 4 .

In PbCl 2 , the bonding is ionic, as indicated by its melting point of 501 °C. In PbCl 4 , the bonding is covalent, as evidenced by it being an unstable liquid at room temperature.

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Is the reaction of rubidium with water more or less vigorous than that of sodium? How does the rate of reaction of magnesium compare?

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Questions & Answers

What is chemistry
khausar Reply
Please what nuclear fusion and nuclear fission
ALABI Reply
في التسمية الشائعة للكيتونات يتم للمجموعة التي phenone إضافة لفظ تحتوي على الفينل
Zahara Reply
what is organic chemistry
God Reply
what is thyroid land
lynda Reply
what is density
Fathmat Reply
A measure of the amount of matter contained by a given volume. The ratio of one quantity to that of another quantity.
Anoruo
mass divided by volume i.e. g/cm^3
Walter
A
lynda
what's molarity?
Okpaka Reply
the concentration of a substance in solution, expressed as the number moles of solute per litre of solution
Anoruo
Please help me solve this question. A is a solution of 0.995mol/dm cube hydrochloride acid. B was prepared by diluting 10cm cube of a saturated solution of sodium trioxocarbonate (iv) to 100cm cube at room temperature. Assuming that 21.50cm cube of A reacted with 25cm cube of B. Calculate: i. Concentration of solution B in mol/dm cube. ii.Solubility of sodium trioxocarbonate (iv) at room temperature. Equation of the reaction: Na2Co3 +2HCL------> 2NaCL +H2O +CO2.
Mercy Reply
I don't know whether it's ok or not, but the answers I got are: I. 0.428 mol/dm^3 II. 4.54g per 100 g of water
Nazifa
In the first one, I first found out the amount of HCl in mol using moles=concentration x volume. Then I checked the ratio of Na2CO3 to HCl, which is 0.5 to 1. Therefore the moles of Na2CO3 will be half of HCl. Using the amount in moles and the volume as 25 cm^3, I reached my answer!
Nazifa
In the second one, it says that 10 cm^3 has saturated Na2CO3 solution. Using the concentration we found in previous answer, I found out the moles present in 10cm^3. After that, using mass= moles x RFM, I got it's mass. As for the mass of water, we know 1 cm^3 gives 1g, so 10 cm^3 gives 10g.....
Nazifa
Using solubility= mass of solute/mass of solvent x 100, we reach the answer.
Nazifa
Note: we will not use the volume of solution to be 100 cm^3, because then the solution will be dilute.
Nazifa
plz do correct me if I'm wrong!! ☺️
Nazifa
is like the answer is 900
lynda
how can I make citric acid crystals from lemon juice
Traceyo Reply
Write the resonance hybrids of furan and thiophene
Hydrolysis of CH3CH2NO2 with 85% H2SO4 gives? 2/Acetaldehyde is oxidised with potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid gives 3/ When benzyl alcohol is oxidised with KMnO4, the product obtained ? 4/ Benzyl chloride is oxidised with KOH4, the 5/
Hydrolysis of CH3CH2NO2 with 85% H2SO4 gives?
Define reduction in term of loss or gain of oxygen or hydrogen give an example.
Aneela
CuO + Mg → Cu + MgO removing oxygen is reduction. here Mg is reducing agent(loss of electrons)
Haider
reduction >> reduc(+)ion mean (+)ion reduced mean electron gained by (+)ion (+)ion means H(+).
Haider
How what works
Eric Reply
no clue how this works is there a VERY SIMPLE tutorial
Stu Reply
what are double bonds
Hafsat Reply
double bond are 2 atom that share four electron they are typical covalent bond that occur in alkene for example c2 h4
abdulaziz
what is the differentiate property of alkynes
Fifa
Am new ,hope am warnly welcome
Sarah Reply
yes ur re welcome
icha
when you are sqaring exponetlias does the exponent become positive if it was negative?
Vittorio Reply
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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