# 18.1 Periodicity  (Page 7/16)

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Aluminum is a very good reducing agent and may replace other reducing agents in the isolation of certain metals from their oxides. Although more expensive than reduction by carbon, aluminum is important in the isolation of Mo, W, and Cr from their oxides.

## Group 14

The metallic members of group 14 are tin, lead, and flerovium. Carbon is a typical nonmetal. The remaining elements of the group, silicon and germanium, are examples of semimetals or metalloids. Tin and lead form the stable divalent cations, Sn 2+ and Pb 2+ , with oxidation states two below the group oxidation state of 4+. The stability of this oxidation state is a consequence of the inert pair effect. Tin and lead also form covalent compounds with a formal 4+-oxidation state. For example, SnCl 4 and PbCl 4 are low-boiling covalent liquids.

Tin reacts readily with nonmetals and acids to form tin(II) compounds (indicating that it is more easily oxidized than hydrogen) and with nonmetals to form either tin(II) or tin(IV) compounds (shown in [link] ), depending on the stoichiometry and reaction conditions. Lead is less reactive. It is only slightly easier to oxidize than hydrogen, and oxidation normally requires a hot concentrated acid.

Many of these elements exist as allotropes. Allotropes are two or more forms of the same element in the same physical state with different chemical and physical properties. There are two common allotropes of tin. These allotropes are grey (brittle) tin and white tin. As with other allotropes, the difference between these forms of tin is in the arrangement of the atoms. White tin is stable above 13.2 °C and is malleable like other metals. At low temperatures, gray tin is the more stable form. Gray tin is brittle and tends to break down to a powder. Consequently, articles made of tin will disintegrate in cold weather, particularly if the cold spell is lengthy. The change progresses slowly from the spot of origin, and the gray tin that is first formed catalyzes further change. In a way, this effect is similar to the spread of an infection in a plant or animal body, leading people to call this process tin disease or tin pest.

The principal use of tin is in the coating of steel to form tin plate-sheet iron, which constitutes the tin in tin cans. Important tin alloys are bronze (Cu and Sn) and solder (Sn and Pb). Lead is important in the lead storage batteries in automobiles.

## Group 15

Bismuth , the heaviest member of group 15, is a less reactive metal than the other representative metals. It readily gives up three of its five valence electrons to active nonmetals to form the tri-positive ion, Bi 3+ . It forms compounds with the group oxidation state of 5+ only when treated with strong oxidizing agents. The stability of the 3+-oxidation state is another example of the inert pair effect.

## Key concepts and summary

This section focuses on the periodicity of the representative elements. These are the elements where the electrons are entering the s and p orbitals. The representative elements occur in groups 1, 2, and 12–18. These elements are representative metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. The alkali metals (group 1) are very reactive, readily form ions with a charge of 1+ to form ionic compounds that are usually soluble in water, and react vigorously with water to form hydrogen gas and a basic solution of the metal hydroxide. The outermost electrons of the alkaline earth metals (group 2) are more difficult to remove than the outer electron of the alkali metals, leading to the group 2 metals being less reactive than those in group 1. These elements easily form compounds in which the metals exhibit an oxidation state of 2+. Zinc, cadmium, and mercury (group 12) commonly exhibit the group oxidation state of 2+ (although mercury also exhibits an oxidation state of 1+ in compounds that contain ${\text{Hg}}_{2}{}^{2+}\right).$ Aluminum, gallium, indium, and thallium (group 13) are easier to oxidize than is hydrogen. Aluminum, gallium, and indium occur with an oxidation state 3+ (however, thallium also commonly occurs as the Tl + ion). Tin and lead form stable divalent cations and covalent compounds in which the metals exhibit the 4+-oxidation state.

hydrogen is a monovalent why aluminum is a divalent
Did you mean trivalent? This is because Aluminium has three electroms orbiting in the valence (furthest shell) which are involved in covalent bonding where each electron becomes a pair with another one in the other non metal and make a single bond. N. B: each single covalent bond contains 2 electr
Abdelkarim
Electrons, one from each atom. Did you know that god said '' And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur'an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom
Abdelkarim
... atom's weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear register. ''
Abdelkarim
wat gives perfume it's sweet smell
These are organic compounds, which have plentiful functional groups which react with certain substances through a pathway in the cells lining nostrils which sends impulses that make you sense its sweet. Did you prophet Muhammad (peace upon him) encourages the use of perfume.
Abdelkarim
what is it use for
amagai
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to love cleanliness and good scent. ... It was highlighted, in many hadiths, his love for fragrance and good scent like musk, 'ud and ambergris.
Abdelkarim
the types of giant covalent structure
define the following terms. electrovalent bonding
Nobert
 An unknown noble gas was allowed to flow into a 300.0 mL glass bulb until the P = 685 torr. Initially, the glass bulb weighed 32.50 g, but now it weighs 33.94 g. If the temperature is 27.0 °C, what’s the identity of the gas?
* Use PV=nRT with correct units to find n (number of moles) * Use n = mass/ Ar (Ar is relative atomic mass) Ar = 131.15 -> Xenon N. B: P is in pascals, V in m3, n in mol, R in J/ k. Mol, T in kelvin *Thank God
Abdelkarim
N. B: As it is a noble gas it is mono-atomic so the Ar does not need to be divided by two (not diatomic).
Abdelkarim
@Abdelkarim... good!
Jag
what is molecule
molecules are produced by double atom from example this is hydrogen atom and this is hydrogen2 are call that hydrogen molecules or gass
Naldo
What is the generic name for the compound
what is the formular for methane
CH4 , it is the simplest alkane
Abdelkarim
what is the formula for alkaline
Olom
hi
Yusuf
I wish to learn to more of chemistry, can someone please teach me.
Yusuf
@Olom Alkaline doesn't have a general formula.
Jag
what is zero gravity
every object is that zero gravity
Rabiu
Probably when an object is in space and there are no nearby masses that pull her, and exert gravity
Abdelkarim
Alright. .good job
Rabiu
And all majesty to God, (وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِی خَلَقَ ٱلَّیۡلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَۖ كُلࣱّ فِی فَلَكࣲ یَسۡبَحُونَ) [سورة الأنبياء 33 And it is He who created the night and the day and the sun and the moon; all [heavenly bodies] in an orbit are swimming. General theory of relativity in Qur
Abdelkarim
what is molecule?
Olom
what is lattice energy
why is CO a neutral oxide and CO2 an acidic oxide
Because when CO2 dissolves in water forming a weak acid. CO does not dissolve in water as it has strong triple bond.
Abdelkarim
What is acid
which donate H+ or accept lone pair of electron
Kajal
kinetic theory of matter and gas law
hi
Victoria
pls explain
Victoria
what is clay
material containing clay minerals. Clays develop plasticity when wet, due to a molecular film of water surrounding the clay particles, but become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Most pure clay minerals are white or light-coloured, but natural clays show a variety of colours
Abdelkarim
due iron oxide. The four types of clay are Earthenware clay, Stoneware clay, Ball clay, and Porcelain. All of them can be used to make pottery, but the end result would differ a lot thanks to their different textures, colors, and flexibilities.
Abdelkarim
And do you know that god has created human from clay (وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلࣲ مِّنۡ حَمَإࣲ مَّسۡنُونࣲ) [سورة الحجر 26] And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. You can install Quran from paly store for free with translations.
Abdelkarim
darw a periodic table
draw a periodic table
Hazard
You will arrange the elements into row and coloumns according to increasing proton number. You may want to use symbols or their names. Hydrogen, Helium, etc. God has created all these elements from nothing, in Islam we know God is the creator.
Abdelkarim
why are you drawing a periodic table? why not just print one from the internet and use as a reference
Jakhari
Great thought
Bright
how are you?
Marina
am fine
Agbo
Marina
my name is amel
Farid
l use the email of my husband
Farid