# 18.1 Periodicity  (Page 6/16)

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Aluminum is amphoteric because it will react with both acids and bases. A typical reaction with an acid is:

$\text{2Al}\left(s\right)+\text{6HCl}\left(aq\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{2AlCl}}_{3}\left(aq\right)+{\text{3H}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

The products of the reaction of aluminum with a base depend upon the reaction conditions, with the following being one possibility:

$\text{2Al}\left(s\right)+\text{2NaOH}\left(aq\right)+{\text{6H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{2Na}\left[\text{Al}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{4}\right]\left(aq\right)+{\text{3H}}_{2}\left(g\right)$

With both acids and bases, the reaction with aluminum generates hydrogen gas.

The group 13 elements have a valence shell electron configuration of ns 2 np 1 . Aluminum normally uses all of its valence electrons when it reacts, giving compounds in which it has an oxidation state of 3+. Although many of these compounds are covalent, others, such as AlF 3 and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , are ionic. Aqueous solutions of aluminum salts contain the cation ${\left[\text{Al}{\left({\text{H}}_{2}\text{O}\right)}_{6}\right]}^{3+},$ abbreviated as Al 3+ ( aq ). Gallium, indium, and thallium also form ionic compounds containing M 3+ ions. These three elements exhibit not only the expected oxidation state of 3+ from the three valence electrons but also an oxidation state (in this case, 1+) that is two below the expected value. This phenomenon, the inert pair effect, refers to the formation of a stable ion with an oxidation state two lower than expected for the group. The pair of electrons is the valence s orbital for those elements. In general, the inert pair effect is important for the lower p -block elements. In an aqueous solution, the Tl + ( aq ) ion is more stable than is Tl 3+ ( aq ). In general, these metals will react with air and water to form 3+ ions; however, thallium reacts to give thallium(I) derivatives. The metals of group 13 all react directly with nonmetals such as sulfur, phosphorus, and the halogens, forming binary compounds.

The metals of group 13 (Al, Ga, In, and Tl) are all reactive. However, passivation occurs as a tough, hard, thin film of the metal oxide forms upon exposure to air. Disruption of this film may counter the passivation, allowing the metal to react. One way to disrupt the film is to expose the passivated metal to mercury. Some of the metal dissolves in the mercury to form an amalgam, which sheds the protective oxide layer to expose the metal to further reaction. The formation of an amalgam allows the metal to react with air and water.

The most important uses of aluminum are in the construction and transportation industries, and in the manufacture of aluminum cans and aluminum foil. These uses depend on the lightness, toughness, and strength of the metal, as well as its resistance to corrosion. Because aluminum is an excellent conductor of heat and resists corrosion, it is useful in the manufacture of cooking utensils.

what is measurement
is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a fixed quantity of the same kind
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
an element is an indivisible particles that can take part in a reaction and consist of smaller or tiny particles i.e proton, neutrons and electron while a compound is when two or more element chemically combine together. They are similar when they are homogeneous compound. they take the same rxn.
Yusuf
How to get the Lewis formula of SeCl+3
hi,I'm new here can I join the conversation
EZEA
what is the structural formula for starch
Starch is a mixture (of chemicals) of amylose and amylopectin. Both are macromolecules and polymers. You can search on wikipedia.
Abdelkarim
what is the roles of filter bed
Fathmat
what is the roles of Alu m
Fathmat
what is the roles of chlorine
Fathmat
Roles can be classified or correlate it to different areas: For example: Chlorine can be used in reactions (in industry) to manufacture HCl, which then can be used for other things. Or in swimming pools to kill bacteria. Or as a component in compounds with pharmaceutical roles (drugs). For Al:
Abdelkarim
Its dentisty value is suitable to be used in alloys (mixture of metals) in aircraft bodies. Also, Aluminium foils, Tin cans,.. Some of them are also in Al overhead cables in streets and long roads.
Abdelkarim
what is chemistry
Maxamed
what is the meaning of exceedingly
it is an adverb which means extremely
Rohini
what is atomic chemistry?
Lewis structure for no3
Lewis structure for no3
what is weak acid
It is an acid which partially ionises in water.
Abdelkarim
what is incandescence
Clifton
what makes it glow
Clifton
why is it red, irange and yellow in color
Clifton
hello am new here and I want to join you
Aliyu
hello
Clifton
hi
Aliyu
too
Gillian
hello i am new here please i want to join this group
Paul
Hi, I'm also new here
Salaudeen
Hi
Keeya
hello guys !!
Sourav
what is pressure?
The force applied to suction Area of the body
Ahmed
Matter composed of exceedingly small paticle called atom.
Yushao
questions related to metals
occurrence and preparation of the representatives metals
Regina
list the 20, periodic table and their symbols
hydrogen:h helium;he lithium:l beryllium:be Boron:b Carbon;C Nitrogen:n Oxygen:O FLUORINE:f Neon:n Sodium:s Magnesium:mg Aluminum:a Silicon:s Phosphorus:p Sulphur:s Chlorine:c Argon;a Potassium:p Calcium:c
Benita
Hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, argon, potassium, calcium
Cudjoe
what is a solute
Any substance that is disolved in a liqid solvent to create a solution
Fifa
sorry liquid
Fifa
it's a liquid substance
Fathmat
hello group
Ayomide
is the substance that dissolves in the solvent
Amos
so is HCl ionic compound
No, covalent compound ➡️ molecule. As both H and Cl are non-metals and and form covalent bind by sharing valence e-. But can fully ionice in water forming H+ (a proton, a reason for acidity) and Cl- (anion =Chloride) Hydrogen Chloride is a gas at room; Hydrochloric acid = HCl (aq), dissolved in w
Abdelkarim
Form covalenr bond*
Abdelkarim
The question marks are an emoji in the first sentence is an unread emoji. HCl Covalent compund -> molecule
Abdelkarim
Hi.
Queen
Hi
Calvin
Yh
Cudjoe
yes
Amos
what is chemistry
is the study of composition of substances and the way they behave under different conditions
Amos
how do calculate n1 though n6 any help on understanding the concept
Clifton
where can I get the test bank or mcqs ? any idea ?
what are the types of intermolecular forces between organic compounds
Intermolecular forces exist between molecules of different units like van der waal force, hydrogen bonds
Salaudeen