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A photo of a lit Bunsen burner is shown. A wooden splint is placed in the flame, and a yellow flame is produced.
Dipping a wire into a solution of a sodium salt and then heating the wire causes emission of a bright yellow light, characteristic of sodium.

Group 2: the alkaline earth metals

The alkaline earth metals (beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium) constitute group 2 of the periodic table. The name alkaline metal comes from the fact that the oxides of the heavier members of the group react with water to form alkaline solutions. The nuclear charge increases when going from group 1 to group 2. Because of this charge increase, the atoms of the alkaline earth metals are smaller and have higher first ionization energies than the alkali metals within the same period. The higher ionization energy makes the alkaline earth metals less reactive than the alkali metals; however, they are still very reactive elements. Their reactivity increases, as expected, with increasing size and decreasing ionization energy. In chemical reactions, these metals readily lose both valence electrons to form compounds in which they exhibit an oxidation state of 2+. Due to their high reactivity, it is common to produce the alkaline earth metals, like the alkali metals, by electrolysis. Even though the ionization energies are low, the two metals with the highest ionization energies (beryllium and magnesium) do form compounds that exhibit some covalent characters. Like the alkali metals, the heavier alkaline earth metals impart color to a flame. As in the case of the alkali metals, this is part of the emission spectrum of these elements. Calcium and strontium produce shades of red, whereas barium produces a green color.

Magnesium is a silver-white metal that is malleable and ductile at high temperatures. Passivation decreases the reactivity of magnesium metal. Upon exposure to air, a tightly adhering layer of magnesium oxycarbonate forms on the surface of the metal and inhibits further reaction. (The carbonate comes from the reaction of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.) Magnesium is the lightest of the widely used structural metals, which is why most magnesium production is for lightweight alloys.

Magnesium (shown in [link] ), calcium, strontium, and barium react with water and air. At room temperature, barium shows the most vigorous reaction. The products of the reaction with water are hydrogen and the metal hydroxide. The formation of hydrogen gas indicates that the heavier alkaline earth metals are better reducing agents (more easily oxidized) than is hydrogen. As expected, these metals react with both acids and nonmetals to form ionic compounds. Unlike most salts of the alkali metals, many of the common salts of the alkaline earth metals are insoluble in water because of the high lattice energies of these compounds, containing a divalent metal ion.

Three glass containers with lids are shown in a photo. A plus sign is drawn between the first two containers and a right-facing arrow is drawn between the second and third containers. The left container holds a black granular solid while the center container holds a clear, colorless liquid. The right container holds a clear, pink liquid.
From left to right: Mg( s ), warm water at pH 7, and the resulting solution with a pH greater than 7, as indicated by the pink color of the phenolphthalein indicator. (credit: modification of work by Sahar Atwa)

Questions & Answers

what is the basicity of an atom
Eze Reply
basicity is the number of replaceable Hydrogen atoms in a Molecule. in H2SO4, the basicity is 2. in Hcl, the basicity is 1
Inemesit
how to solve oxidation number
Mr Reply
good evening sir
Lade
mention some examples of ester
Chinenye Reply
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
Rozzi Reply
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
Bassidi Reply
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
legend Reply
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
Nadeen Reply
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Nadeen
yvcrzezalakhhehuzhbshsunakakoaak
Nadeen
what is poh and ph
Amarachi Reply
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
Austin Reply
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
Michael Reply
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
david Reply
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
Sa Reply
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
Bakanya Reply
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken
what is the electrolysis of sulphuric acid
Bakanya Reply
why is electrolysis difficult using solid lead chloride
Bakanya
what is heat formation
Biefon Reply
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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