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Group 1: the alkali metals

The alkali metals lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium constitute group 1 of the periodic table. Although hydrogen is in group 1 (and also in group 17), it is a nonmetal and deserves separate consideration later in this chapter. The name alkali metal is in reference to the fact that these metals and their oxides react with water to form very basic (alkaline) solutions.

The properties of the alkali metals are similar to each other as expected for elements in the same family. The alkali metals have the largest atomic radii and the lowest first ionization energy in their periods. This combination makes it very easy to remove the single electron in the outermost (valence) shell of each. The easy loss of this valence electron means that these metals readily form stable cations with a charge of 1+. Their reactivity increases with increasing atomic number due to the ease of losing the lone valence electron (decreasing ionization energy). Since oxidation is so easy, the reverse, reduction, is difficult, which explains why it is hard to isolate the elements. The solid alkali metals are very soft; lithium, shown in [link] , has the lowest density of any metal (0.5 g/cm 3 ).

The alkali metals all react vigorously with water to form hydrogen gas and a basic solution of the metal hydroxide. This means they are easier to oxidize than is hydrogen. As an example, the reaction of lithium with water is:

2Li ( s ) + 2H 2 O ( l ) 2LiOH ( a q ) + H 2 ( g )
A glass container that is half filled with a colorless liquid is shown. Blocks of a shiny silver solid float on top of the liquid in the container.
Lithium floats in paraffin oil because its density is less than the density of paraffin oil.

Alkali metals react directly with all the nonmetals (except the noble gases) to yield binary ionic compounds containing 1+ metal ions. These metals are so reactive that it is necessary to avoid contact with both moisture and oxygen in the air. Therefore, they are stored in sealed containers under mineral oil, as shown in [link] , to prevent contact with air and moisture. The pure metals never exist free (uncombined) in nature due to their high reactivity. In addition, this high reactivity makes it necessary to prepare the metals by electrolysis of alkali metal compounds.

A sealed, tube-like glass container is shown. The container is partially filled with a colorless liquid and contains two metallic spheres.
To prevent contact with air and water, potassium for laboratory use comes as sticks or beads stored under kerosene or mineral oil, or in sealed containers. (credit: http://images-of-elements.com/potassium.php)

Unlike many other metals, the reactivity and softness of the alkali metals make these metals unsuitable for structural applications. However, there are applications where the reactivity of the alkali metals is an advantage. For example, the production of metals such as titanium and zirconium relies, in part, on the ability of sodium to reduce compounds of these metals. The manufacture of many organic compounds, including certain dyes, drugs, and perfumes, utilizes reduction by lithium or sodium.

Sodium and its compounds impart a bright yellow color to a flame, as seen in [link] . Passing an electrical discharge through sodium vapor also produces this color. In both cases, this is an example of an emission spectrum as discussed in the chapter on electronic structure. Streetlights sometime employ sodium vapor lights because the sodium vapor penetrates fog better than most other light. This is because the fog does not scatter yellow light as much as it scatters white light. The other alkali metals and their salts also impart color to a flame. Lithium creates a bright, crimson color, whereas the others create a pale, violet color.

Questions & Answers

wat are hydrocarbon s
Opio Reply
I think they are molecules that comprise only of hydrogen and carbon atoms ( they are organic if I'm not mistaken)
Mmathabo
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Yeko
give two properties of liquid
Grace Reply
what is measurement
Isaiah Reply
is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a fixed quantity of the same kind
Sahada
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
Adeola Reply
an element is an indivisible particles that can take part in a reaction and consist of smaller or tiny particles i.e proton, neutrons and electron while a compound is when two or more element chemically combine together. They are similar when they are homogeneous compound. they take the same rxn.
Yusuf
an element is s chemically pure substance containing a particular type of atoms.. A COMPOUND is a substance containing atoms from different elements..
Inemesit
How to get the Lewis formula of SeCl+3
Erica Reply
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EZEA
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EZEA Reply
Starch is a mixture (of chemicals) of amylose and amylopectin. Both are macromolecules and polymers. You can search on wikipedia.
Abdelkarim
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Fathmat
what is the roles of Alu m
Fathmat
what is the roles of chlorine
Fathmat
Roles can be classified or correlate it to different areas: For example: Chlorine can be used in reactions (in industry) to manufacture HCl, which then can be used for other things. Or in swimming pools to kill bacteria. Or as a component in compounds with pharmaceutical roles (drugs). For Al:
Abdelkarim
Its dentisty value is suitable to be used in alloys (mixture of metals) in aircraft bodies. Also, Aluminium foils, Tin cans,.. Some of them are also in Al overhead cables in streets and long roads.
Abdelkarim
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Maxamed
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Yushao Reply
it is an adverb which means extremely
Rohini
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Gladys Reply
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
what is weak acid
Muhammed Reply
It is an acid which partially ionises in water.
Abdelkarim
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Clifton
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Clifton
why is it red, irange and yellow in color
Clifton
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Aliyu
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Clifton
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Aliyu
too
Gillian
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Paul
Hi, I'm also new here
Salaudeen
Hi
Keeya
hello guys !!
Sourav
what is pressure?
Slark Reply
The force applied to suction Area of the body
Ahmed
Matter composed of exceedingly small paticle called atom.
Yushao
questions related to metals
Regina Reply
occurrence and preparation of the representatives metals
Regina
list the 20, periodic table and their symbols
Fathmat Reply
hydrogen:h helium;he lithium:l beryllium:be Boron:b Carbon;C Nitrogen:n Oxygen:O FLUORINE:f Neon:n Sodium:s Magnesium:mg Aluminum:a Silicon:s Phosphorus:p Sulphur:s Chlorine:c Argon;a Potassium:p Calcium:c
Benita
Hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, argon, potassium, calcium
Cudjoe
what is a solute
Ekezie Reply
Any substance that is disolved in a liqid solvent to create a solution
Fifa
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Fifa
it's a liquid substance
Fathmat
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Ayomide
is the substance that dissolves in the solvent
Amos
so is HCl ionic compound
Honest Reply
No, covalent compound ➡️ molecule. As both H and Cl are non-metals and and form covalent bind by sharing valence e-. But can fully ionice in water forming H+ (a proton, a reason for acidity) and Cl- (anion =Chloride) Hydrogen Chloride is a gas at room; Hydrochloric acid = HCl (aq), dissolved in w
Abdelkarim
Form covalenr bond*
Abdelkarim
The question marks are an emoji in the first sentence is an unread emoji. HCl Covalent compund -> molecule
Abdelkarim
Hi.
Queen
Hi
Calvin
Yh
Cudjoe
yes
Amos
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Chukwu Reply
is the study of composition of substances and the way they behave under different conditions
Amos
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Clifton
is the study of properties of matter and it's component
Grace
Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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