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The odor of vinegar is due to the presence of acetic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H, a weak acid. List, in order of descending concentration, all of the ionic and molecular species present in a 1- M aqueous solution of this acid.

[H 2 O]>[CH 3 CO 2 H]> [ H 3 O + ] [ CH 3 CO 2 ] >[OH ]

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Household ammonia is a solution of the weak base NH 3 in water. List, in order of descending concentration, all of the ionic and molecular species present in a 1- M aqueous solution of this base.

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Explain why the ionization constant, K a , for H 2 SO 4 is larger than the ionization constant for H 2 SO 3 .

The oxidation state of the sulfur in H 2 SO 4 is greater than the oxidation state of the sulfur in H 2 SO 3 .

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Explain why the ionization constant, K a , for HI is larger than the ionization constant for HF.

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Gastric juice, the digestive fluid produced in the stomach, contains hydrochloric acid, HCl. Milk of Magnesia, a suspension of solid Mg(OH) 2 in an aqueous medium, is sometimes used to neutralize excess stomach acid. Write a complete balanced equation for the neutralization reaction, and identify the conjugate acid-base pairs.

Mg ( OH ) 2 ( s ) + 2HCl ( a q ) Mg 2+ ( a q ) + 2 Cl ( a q ) + 2H 2 O ( l ) BB BA CB CA

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Nitric acid reacts with insoluble copper(II) oxide to form soluble copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 , a compound that has been used to prevent the growth of algae in swimming pools. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of an aqueous solution of HNO 3 with CuO.

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What is the ionization constant at 25 °C for the weak acid CH 3 NH 3 + , the conjugate acid of the weak base CH 3 NH 2 , K b = 4.4 × 10 −4 .

K a = 2.3 × 10 −11

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What is the ionization constant at 25 °C for the weak acid ( CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + , the conjugate acid of the weak base (CH 3 ) 2 NH, K b = 5.9 × 10 −4 ?

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Which base, CH 3 NH 2 or (CH 3 ) 2 NH, is the stronger base? Which conjugate acid, ( CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 + or (CH 3 ) 2 NH, is the stronger acid?

The stronger base or stronger acid is the one with the larger K b or K a , respectively. In these two examples, they are (CH 3 ) 2 NH and CH 3 NH 3 + .

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Which is the stronger acid, NH 4 + or HBrO?

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Which is the stronger base, (CH 3 ) 3 N or H 2 BO 3 ?

triethylamine.

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Predict which acid in each of the following pairs is the stronger and explain your reasoning for each.

(a) H 2 O or HF

(b) B(OH) 3 or Al(OH) 3

(c) HSO 3 or HSO 4

(d) NH 3 or H 2 S

(e) H 2 O or H 2 Te

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Predict which compound in each of the following pairs of compounds is more acidic and explain your reasoning for each.

(a) HSO 4 or HSeO 4

(b) NH 3 or H 2 O

(c) PH 3 or HI

(d) NH 3 or PH 3

(e) H 2 S or HBr

(a) HSO 4 ; higher electronegativity of the central ion. (b) H 2 O; NH 3 is a base and water is neutral, or decide on the basis of K a values. (c) HI; PH 3 is weaker than HCl; HCl is weaker than HI. Thus, PH 3 is weaker than HI. (d) PH 3 ; in binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals, the acidity increases for the element lower in a group. (e) HBr; in a period, the acidity increases from left to right; in a group, it increases from top to bottom. Br is to the left and below S, so HBr is the stronger acid.

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Rank the compounds in each of the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.

(a) acidity: HCl, HBr, HI

(b) basicity: H 2 O, OH , H , Cl

(c) basicity: Mg(OH) 2 , Si(OH) 4 , ClO 3 (OH) (Hint: Formula could also be written as HClO 4 ).

(d) acidity: HF, H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4

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Questions & Answers

What is stoichometry
ngwuebo Reply
what is atom
yinka Reply
An indivisible part of an element
ngwuebo
the smallest particle of an element which is indivisible is called an atom
Aloaye
An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element that can take part in chemical reaction
Alieu
is carbonates soluble
Ebuka Reply
what is the difference between light and electricity
Joshua Reply
What is atom? atom can be defined as the smallest particles
Adazion
what is the difference between Anode and nodes?
Adazion
What's the net equations for the three steps of dissociation of phosphoric acid?
Lisa Reply
what is chemistry
Prince Reply
the study of matter
Reginald
what did the first law of thermodynamics say
Starr Reply
energy can neither be created or distroyed it can only be transferred or converted from one form to another
Adedeji
Graham's law of Diffusion
Ayo Reply
what is melting vaporization
Anieke Reply
melting and boiling point explain in term of molecular motion and Brownian movement
Anieke
Scientific notation for 150.9433962
Steve Reply
what is aromaticity
Usman Reply
aromaticity is a conjugated pi system specific to organic rings like benzene, which have an odd number of electron pairs within the system that allows for exceptional molecular stability
Pookieman
what is caustic soda
Ogbonna Reply
sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
Kamaluddeen
what is distilled water
Rihanat
is simply means a condensed water vapour
Kamaluddeen
advantage and disadvantage of water to human and industry
Abdulrahman Reply
a hydrocarbon contains 7.7 percent by mass of hydrogen and 92.3 percent by mass of carbon
Timothy Reply
how many types of covalent r there
JArim Reply
how many covalent bond r there
JArim
they are three 3
Adazion
TYPES OF COVALENT BOND-POLAR BOND-NON POLAR BOND-DOUBLE BOND-TRIPPLE BOND. There are three types of covalent bond depending upon the number of shared electron pairs. A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is called a "Single Covalent bond.
Usman
Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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