# 14.3 Relative strengths of acids and bases  (Page 10/18)

 Page 10 / 18

The odor of vinegar is due to the presence of acetic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H, a weak acid. List, in order of descending concentration, all of the ionic and molecular species present in a 1- M aqueous solution of this acid.

[H 2 O]>[CH 3 CO 2 H]> $\left[{\text{H}}_{3}{\text{O}}^{\text{+}}\right]$ $\left[{\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{CO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}\right]$ >[OH ]

Household ammonia is a solution of the weak base NH 3 in water. List, in order of descending concentration, all of the ionic and molecular species present in a 1- M aqueous solution of this base.

Explain why the ionization constant, K a , for H 2 SO 4 is larger than the ionization constant for H 2 SO 3 .

The oxidation state of the sulfur in H 2 SO 4 is greater than the oxidation state of the sulfur in H 2 SO 3 .

Explain why the ionization constant, K a , for HI is larger than the ionization constant for HF.

Gastric juice, the digestive fluid produced in the stomach, contains hydrochloric acid, HCl. Milk of Magnesia, a suspension of solid Mg(OH) 2 in an aqueous medium, is sometimes used to neutralize excess stomach acid. Write a complete balanced equation for the neutralization reaction, and identify the conjugate acid-base pairs.

$\begin{array}{cccccc}\text{Mg}{\left(\text{OH}\right)}_{2}\left(s\right)+& \text{2HCl}\left(aq\right)& \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}⟶\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}& {\text{Mg}}^{2+}\left(aq\right)+& 2{\text{Cl}}^{\text{−}}\left(aq\right)+\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}& {\text{2H}}_{2}\text{O}\left(l\right)\\ \text{BB}& \text{BA}& & \text{CB}& \text{CA}& \end{array}$

Nitric acid reacts with insoluble copper(II) oxide to form soluble copper(II) nitrate, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 , a compound that has been used to prevent the growth of algae in swimming pools. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of an aqueous solution of HNO 3 with CuO.

What is the ionization constant at 25 °C for the weak acid ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{NH}}_{3}{}^{\text{+}},$ the conjugate acid of the weak base CH 3 NH 2 , K b = 4.4 $×$ 10 −4 .

${K}_{\text{a}}=2.3\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}×\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{10}^{-11}$

What is the ionization constant at 25 °C for the weak acid ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{2}{\text{NH}}_{2}{}^{\text{+}},$ the conjugate acid of the weak base (CH 3 ) 2 NH, K b = 5.9 $×$ 10 −4 ?

Which base, CH 3 NH 2 or (CH 3 ) 2 NH, is the stronger base? Which conjugate acid, ${\left({\text{CH}}_{3}\right)}_{2}{\text{NH}}_{2}{}^{\text{+}}$ or (CH 3 ) 2 NH, is the stronger acid?

The stronger base or stronger acid is the one with the larger K b or K a , respectively. In these two examples, they are (CH 3 ) 2 NH and ${\text{CH}}_{3}{\text{NH}}_{3}{}^{\text{+}}.$

Which is the stronger acid, ${\text{NH}}_{4}{}^{\text{+}}$ or HBrO?

Which is the stronger base, (CH 3 ) 3 N or ${\text{H}}_{2}{\text{BO}}_{3}{}^{\text{−}}?$

triethylamine.

Predict which acid in each of the following pairs is the stronger and explain your reasoning for each.

(a) H 2 O or HF

(b) B(OH) 3 or Al(OH) 3

(c) ${\text{HSO}}_{3}{}^{\text{−}}$ or ${\text{HSO}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}$

(d) NH 3 or H 2 S

(e) H 2 O or H 2 Te

Predict which compound in each of the following pairs of compounds is more acidic and explain your reasoning for each.

(a) ${\text{HSO}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}$ or ${\text{HSeO}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}}$

(b) NH 3 or H 2 O

(c) PH 3 or HI

(d) NH 3 or PH 3

(e) H 2 S or HBr

(a) ${\text{HSO}}_{4}{}^{\text{−}};$ higher electronegativity of the central ion. (b) H 2 O; NH 3 is a base and water is neutral, or decide on the basis of K a values. (c) HI; PH 3 is weaker than HCl; HCl is weaker than HI. Thus, PH 3 is weaker than HI. (d) PH 3 ; in binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals, the acidity increases for the element lower in a group. (e) HBr; in a period, the acidity increases from left to right; in a group, it increases from top to bottom. Br is to the left and below S, so HBr is the stronger acid.

Rank the compounds in each of the following groups in order of increasing acidity or basicity, as indicated, and explain the order you assign.

(a) acidity: HCl, HBr, HI

(b) basicity: H 2 O, OH , H , Cl

(c) basicity: Mg(OH) 2 , Si(OH) 4 , ClO 3 (OH) (Hint: Formula could also be written as HClO 4 ).

(d) acidity: HF, H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4

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An indivisible part of an element
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the smallest particle of an element which is indivisible is called an atom
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An atom is the smallest indivisible particle of an element that can take part in chemical reaction
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is carbonates soluble
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what is chemistry
the study of matter
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energy can neither be created or distroyed it can only be transferred or converted from one form to another
Graham's law of Diffusion
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melting and boiling point explain in term of molecular motion and Brownian movement
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Scientific notation for 150.9433962
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aromaticity is a conjugated pi system specific to organic rings like benzene, which have an odd number of electron pairs within the system that allows for exceptional molecular stability
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sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
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is simply means a condensed water vapour
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how many covalent bond r there
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they are three 3
TYPES OF COVALENT BOND-POLAR BOND-NON POLAR BOND-DOUBLE BOND-TRIPPLE BOND. There are three types of covalent bond depending upon the number of shared electron pairs. A covalent bond formed by the mutual sharing of one electron pair between two atoms is called a "Single Covalent bond.
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