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Are the concentrations of hydronium ion and hydroxide ion in a solution of an acid or a base in water directly proportional or inversely proportional? Explain your answer.

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What two common assumptions can simplify calculation of equilibrium concentrations in a solution of a weak acid?

1. Assume that the change in initial concentration of the acid as the equilibrium is established can be neglected, so this concentration can be assumed constant and equal to the initial value of the total acid concentration. 2. Assume we can neglect the contribution of water to the equilibrium concentration of H 3 O + .

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What two common assumptions can simplify calculation of equilibrium concentrations in a solution of a weak base?

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Which of the following will increase the percent of NH 3 that is converted to the ammonium ion in water (Hint: Use LeChâtelier’s principle.)?

(a) addition of NaOH

(b) addition of HCl

(c) addition of NH 4 Cl

(b) The addition of HCl

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Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water?

(a) addition of NaOH

(b) addition of HCl

(c) addition of NaF

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What is the effect on the concentrations of NO 2 , HNO 2 , and OH when the following are added to a solution of KNO 2 in water:

(a) HCl

(b) HNO 2

(c) NaOH

(d) NaCl

(e) KNO

The equation for the equilibrium is:
NO 2 ( a q ) + H 2 O ( l ) HNO 2 ( a q ) + OH ( a q )

(a) Adding HCl will add H 3 O + ions, which will then react with the OH ions, lowering their concentration. The equilibrium will shift to the right, increasing the concentration of HNO 2 , and decreasing the concentration of NO 2 ions. (b) Adding HNO 2 increases the concentration of HNO 2 and shifts the equilibrium to the left, increasing the concentration of NO 2 ions and decreasing the concentration of OH ions. (c) Adding NaOH adds OH ions, which shifts the equilibrium to the left, increasing the concentration of NO 2 ions and decreasing the concentrations of HNO 2 . (d) Adding NaCl has no effect on the concentrations of the ions. (e) Adding KNO 2 adds NO 2 ions and shifts the equilibrium to the right, increasing the HNO 2 and OH ion concentrations.

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What is the effect on the concentration of hydrofluoric acid, hydronium ion, and fluoride ion when the following are added to separate solutions of hydrofluoric acid?

(a) HCl

(b) KF

(c) NaCl

(d) KOH

(e) HF

The equation for the equilibrium is:
HF ( a q ) + H 2 O ( l ) H 3 O + ( a q ) + F ( a q )

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Why is the hydronium ion concentration in a solution that is 0.10 M in HCl and 0.10 M in HCOOH determined by the concentration of HCl?

This is a case in which the solution contains a mixture of acids of different ionization strengths. In solution, the HCO 2 H exists primarily as HCO 2 H molecules because the ionization of the weak acid is suppressed by the strong acid. Therefore, the HCO 2 H contributes a negligible amount of hydronium ions to the solution. The stronger acid, HCl, is the dominant producer of hydronium ions because it is completely ionized. In such a solution, the stronger acid determines the concentration of hydronium ions, and the ionization of the weaker acid is fixed by the [H 3 O + ] produced by the stronger acid.

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Questions & Answers

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the study of matter
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sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
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Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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