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Key concepts and summary

The structures of crystalline metals and simple ionic compounds can be described in terms of packing of spheres. Metal atoms can pack in hexagonal closest-packed structures, cubic closest-packed structures, body-centered structures, and simple cubic structures. The anions in simple ionic structures commonly adopt one of these structures, and the cations occupy the spaces remaining between the anions. Small cations usually occupy tetrahedral holes in a closest-packed array of anions. Larger cations usually occupy octahedral holes. Still larger cations can occupy cubic holes in a simple cubic array of anions. The structure of a solid can be described by indicating the size and shape of a unit cell and the contents of the cell. The type of structure and dimensions of the unit cell can be determined by X-ray diffraction measurements.

Key equations

  • n λ = 2 d sin θ

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Describe the crystal structure of iron, which crystallizes with two equivalent metal atoms in a cubic unit cell.

The structure of this low-temperature form of iron (below 910 °C) is body-centered cubic. There is one-eighth atom at each of the eight corners of the cube and one atom in the center of the cube.

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Describe the crystal structure of Pt, which crystallizes with four equivalent metal atoms in a cubic unit cell.

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What is the coordination number of a chromium atom in the body-centered cubic structure of chromium?

eight

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What is the coordination number of an aluminum atom in the face-centered cubic structure of aluminum?

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Cobalt metal crystallizes in a hexagonal closest packed structure. What is the coordination number of a cobalt atom?

12

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Nickel metal crystallizes in a cubic closest packed structure. What is the coordination number of a nickel atom?

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Tungsten crystallizes in a body-centered cubic unit cell with an edge length of 3.165 Å.

(a) What is the atomic radius of tungsten in this structure?

(b) Calculate the density of tungsten.

(a) 1.370 Å; (b) 19.26 g/cm

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Platinum (atomic radius = 1.38 Å) crystallizes in a cubic closely packed structure. Calculate the edge length of the face-centered cubic unit cell and the density of platinum.

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Barium crystallizes in a body-centered cubic unit cell with an edge length of 5.025 Å

(a) What is the atomic radius of barium in this structure?

(b) Calculate the density of barium.

(a) 2.176 Å; (b) 3.595 g/cm 3

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Aluminum (atomic radius = 1.43 Å) crystallizes in a cubic closely packed structure. Calculate the edge length of the face-centered cubic unit cell and the density of aluminum.

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The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm 3 ; that of silicon is 2.3 g/cm 3 . Explain why Si has the lower density even though it has heavier atoms.

The crystal structure of Si shows that it is less tightly packed (coordination number 4) in the solid than Al (coordination number 12).

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The free space in a metal may be found by subtracting the volume of the atoms in a unit cell from the volume of the cell. Calculate the percentage of free space in each of the three cubic lattices if all atoms in each are of equal size and touch their nearest neighbors. Which of these structures represents the most efficient packing? That is, which packs with the least amount of unused space?

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Questions & Answers

what is the basicity of an atom
Eze Reply
how to solve oxidation number
Mr Reply
good evening sir
Lade
mention some examples of ester
Chinenye Reply
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
Rozzi Reply
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
Bassidi Reply
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
legend Reply
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
Nadeen Reply
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Nadeen
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Nadeen
what is poh and ph
Amarachi Reply
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
Austin Reply
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
Michael Reply
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
david Reply
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
Sa Reply
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
Bakanya Reply
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken
what is the electrolysis of sulphuric acid
Bakanya Reply
why is electrolysis difficult using solid lead chloride
Bakanya
what is heat formation
Biefon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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