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Three pairs of images are shown. The first three images are in a row and are labeled “Lattice point locations” while the second three images are in a row labeled “Cubic unit cells.” The first image in the top row shows a cube with black dots at each corner while the first image in the second row is composed of eight spheres that are stacked together to form a cube and dots at the center of each sphere are connected to form a cube shape. The name under this image reads “Simple cubic.” The second image in the top row shows a cube with black dots at each corner and a red dot in the center while the second image in the second row is composed of eight spheres that are stacked together to form a cube with one sphere in the center of the cube and dots at the center of each corner sphere connected to form a cube shape. The name under this image reads “Body-centered cubic.” The third image in the top row shows a cube with black dots at each corner and red dots in the center of each face while the third image in the second row is composed of eight spheres that are stacked together to form a cube with six more spheres located in the center of each face of the cube. Dots at the center of each corner sphere are connected to form a cube shape. The name under this image reads “Face-centered cubic.”
Cubic unit cells of metals show (in the upper figures) the locations of lattice points and (in the lower figures) metal atoms located in the unit cell.

Some metals crystallize in an arrangement that has a cubic unit cell with atoms at all of the corners and an atom in the center, as shown in [link] . This is called a body-centered cubic (BCC) solid    . Atoms in the corners of a BCC unit cell do not contact each other but contact the atom in the center. A BCC unit cell contains two atoms: one-eighth of an atom at each of the eight corners ( 8 × 1 8 = 1 atom from the corners) plus one atom from the center. Any atom in this structure touches four atoms in the layer above it and four atoms in the layer below it. Thus, an atom in a BCC structure has a coordination number of eight.

Three images are shown. The first image shows a cube with black dots at each corner and a red dot in the center while the second image is composed of eight spheres that are stacked together to form a cube with one sphere in the center of the cube and dots at the center of each corner sphere connected to form a cube shape.  The name under this image reads “Body-centered cubic structure.” The third image is the same as the second, but only shows the portions of the spheres that lie inside the cube shape.
In a body-centered cubic structure, atoms in a specific layer do not touch each other. Each atom touches four atoms in the layer above it and four atoms in the layer below it.

Atoms in BCC arrangements are much more efficiently packed than in a simple cubic structure, occupying about 68% of the total volume. Isomorphous metals with a BCC structure include K, Ba, Cr, Mo, W, and Fe at room temperature. (Elements or compounds that crystallize with the same structure are said to be isomorphous    .)

Many other metals, such as aluminum, copper, and lead, crystallize in an arrangement that has a cubic unit cell with atoms at all of the corners and at the centers of each face, as illustrated in [link] . This arrangement is called a face-centered cubic (FCC) solid    . A FCC unit cell contains four atoms: one-eighth of an atom at each of the eight corners ( 8 × 1 8 = 1 atom from the corners) and one-half of an atom on each of the six faces ( 6 × 1 2 = 3 atoms from the faces). The atoms at the corners touch the atoms in the centers of the adjacent faces along the face diagonals of the cube. Because the atoms are on identical lattice points, they have identical environments.

Three images are shown. The first image shows a cube with black dots at each corner and red dots in the center of each face of the cube while the second image is composed of eight spheres that are stacked together to form a cube with six more spheres, one located on each face of the structure. Dots at the center of each corner sphere are connected to form a cube shape. The name under this image reads “Face-centered cubic structure.” The third image is the same as the second, but only shows the portions of the spheres that lie inside the cube shape.
A face-centered cubic solid has atoms at the corners and, as the name implies, at the centers of the faces of its unit cells.

Atoms in an FCC arrangement are packed as closely together as possible, with atoms occupying 74% of the volume. This structure is also called cubic closest packing (CCP)    . In CCP, there are three repeating layers of hexagonally arranged atoms. Each atom contacts six atoms in its own layer, three in the layer above, and three in the layer below. In this arrangement, each atom touches 12 near neighbors, and therefore has a coordination number of 12. The fact that FCC and CCP arrangements are equivalent may not be immediately obvious, but why they are actually the same structure is illustrated in [link] .

Three images are shown. In the first image, a side view shows a layer of blue spheres, labeled “C” stacked on top of, and sitting in between the gaps in a second layer that is composed of green spheres, labeled “B,” which are sitting atop a purple layer of spheres labeled “A.” A label below this image reads “Side view.” The second image shows a top view of the same layers of spheres, where the top layer is “C,” the second layer is “B” and the lowest layer is “C.” This image is labeled “Top view” and written under this is the phrase “Cubic closest packed structure.” The third image shows an upper view of the side of a cube composed of two sets of the repeating layers shown in the other images. The layers are arranged “C, B, A, C, B, A, C” and the phrase written under this image reads “Rotated view.”
A CCP arrangement consists of three repeating layers (ABCABC…) of hexagonally arranged atoms. Atoms in a CCP structure have a coordination number of 12 because they contact six atoms in their layer, plus three atoms in the layer above and three atoms in the layer below. By rotating our perspective, we can see that a CCP structure has a unit cell with a face containing an atom from layer A at one corner, atoms from layer B across a diagonal (at two corners and in the middle of the face), and an atom from layer C at the remaining corner. This is the same as a face-centered cubic arrangement.

Questions & Answers

how can someone understand chemistry vividly
Mercy Reply
Maybe by reading proofs or practical work and application in modern world.
Abdelkarim
what is isotopes
Samuel Reply
whats de shape of water
Amara Reply
water has no shape because it's liquid
Wil
water is a shapeless, odourless, colourless and tasteless substance that only takes the shape of its container.
mikefred
i think they're referring to the molecular shape?
It has no shape but takes the shape of the container
kpadonu
what isthe maening pkw
Wilson Reply
introduction to chemistry for beginner
Lansana Reply
hi
noble
through out human history
marwan Reply
Yes?
Esther
hello
noble
yes
Bol
what
noble
is euglena a unicellular organ
Agio Reply
is euglena a unicellular organism
Agio
how is hydrogen can be heated
Buwembo Reply
what is difference between atom and molecule
Aqeela Reply
Atom is the smallest part of matter; it consists of equal number of protons and electrons. It may have neutrons. A molecule is a compound made of atoms covalently bonded.
Abdelkarim
does amoeba has structure
Mercy Reply
what is the effect of green house on the earth 🌎
kolawole Reply
what is the effect of green house on the earth 🌎
kolawole
what's an atom?
Davy Reply
it's the smallest unit of Matter
Orsine
atom
Eden
smallest part of an element
lydia
also, depending on its (atom's) structure, that is the amount of protons and neutrons and electrons, is the determining factors of what element it is.
Richard
is a smallast particals of an element
Buwembo
it is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction
Ayub
is the smallest part of an element
Jonathan
An atom is the smallest indivisible part of a matter
kpadonu
Oy kl konsa test hay or kitna hay?
Faisal Reply
differences between solid liquid and gaseous state
Ochei Reply
modification of John dalton atomic theory
Ochei
the differences between soliq liquid and gas is that in solid the particle are strongly bonded together by forces of cohesion and the particle are not able to move about but only vibrate in a fixed position but in liquid the particle are loosely bond together and the particle are able to move about
kolawole
2.4g of magnesium reacts with 0.3mol of hydrochloric acid write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction. (b)Determine the limiting reactant
Sheldon Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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