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A graph is shown where the x-axis is labeled “Temperature ( degree sign, C )” and has values of negative 100 to 100 in increments of 25 and the y-axis is labeled “Pressure ( k P a )” and has values of 10 to 1,000,000. A line extends from the lower left bottom of the graph upward to a point around“27, 9000,” where it ends. The space under this curve is labeled “Gas.” A second line extends in a curve from point around “-73, 100” to “27, 1,000,000.” The area to the left of this line and above the first line is labeled “Solid” while the area to the right is labeled “Liquid.” A section on the graph under the second line and past the point “28” on the x-axis is labeled “S C F.”
The pressure and temperature axes on this phase diagram of carbon dioxide are not drawn to constant scale in order to illustrate several important properties.

Determining the state of carbon dioxide

Using the phase diagram for carbon dioxide shown in [link] , determine the state of CO 2 at the following temperatures and pressures:

(a) −30 °C and 2000 kPa

(b) −60 °C and 1000 kPa

(c) −60 °C and 100 kPa

(d) 20 °C and 1500 kPa

(e) 0 °C and 100 kPa

(f) 20 °C and 100 kPa


Using the phase diagram for carbon dioxide provided, we can determine that the state of CO 2 at each temperature and pressure given are as follows: (a) liquid; (b) solid; (c) gas; (d) liquid; (e) gas; (f) gas.

Check your learning

Determine the phase changes carbon dioxide undergoes when its temperature is varied, thus holding its pressure constant at 1500 kPa? At 500 kPa? At what approximate temperatures do these phase changes occur?


at 1500 kPa: s l at −45 °C, l g at −10 °C;

at 500 kPa: s g at −58 °C

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Supercritical fluids

If we place a sample of water in a sealed container at 25 °C, remove the air, and let the vaporization-condensation equilibrium establish itself, we are left with a mixture of liquid water and water vapor at a pressure of 0.03 atm. A distinct boundary between the more dense liquid and the less dense gas is clearly observed. As we increase the temperature, the pressure of the water vapor increases, as described by the liquid-gas curve in the phase diagram for water ( [link] ), and a two-phase equilibrium of liquid and gaseous phases remains. At a temperature of 374 °C, the vapor pressure has risen to 218 atm, and any further increase in temperature results in the disappearance of the boundary between liquid and vapor phases. All of the water in the container is now present in a single phase whose physical properties are intermediate between those of the gaseous and liquid states. This phase of matter is called a supercritical fluid    , and the temperature and pressure above which this phase exists is the critical point    ( [link] ). Above its critical temperature, a gas cannot be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature is called the critical pressure. The critical temperatures and critical pressures of some common substances are given in [link] .

Substance Critical Temperature (K) Critical Pressure (atm)
hydrogen 33.2 12.8
nitrogen 126.0 33.5
oxygen 154.3 49.7
carbon dioxide 304.2 73.0
ammonia 405.5 111.5
sulfur dioxide 430.3 77.7
water 647.1 217.7
Four photographs are shown where each shows a circular container with a green and red float in each. In the left diagram, the container is half filled with a colorless liquid and the floats sit on the surface of the liquid. In the second photo, the green float is near the top and the red float lies near the bottom of the container. In the third photo, the fluid is darker and the green float sits halfway up the container while the red is sitting at the bottom. In the right photo, the liquid is colorless again and the two floats sit on the surface.
(a) A sealed container of liquid carbon dioxide slightly below its critical point is heated, resulting in (b) the formation of the supercritical fluid phase. Cooling the supercritical fluid lowers its temperature and pressure below the critical point, resulting in the reestablishment of separate liquid and gaseous phases (c and d). Colored floats illustrate differences in density between the liquid, gaseous, and supercritical fluid states. (credit: modification of work by “mrmrobin”/YouTube)

Questions & Answers

who is the father of chemistry
Naomi Reply
what is hybridization and bonding
Simon Reply
please who is the father of chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier
I recommend reading on Google.
Also, god has created everything
(Allah, the creator)
how to determine the empirical formula
Vickie Reply
what is neutralisation reaction
Ugbaje Reply
It is a reaction where an acid (aq) reacts with an alkali (aq) to form salt AND water.
What is the ratio of the average kinetic energy of a SO 2 molecule to that of an O 2 molecule in a mixture of two gases? What is the ratio of the root mean square speeds, u rms , of the two gases?
xMah_Bx Reply
what is methyl orange
Wisdom Reply
its an indicator
It is an organic molecule that reacts with acid/base medium and shows change in colour (due to formed products). It can be used to test for alcohols which are prohibited to drink in Islam as it is bad for brain and liver and immunity.
it is an indicator used to determine the end point in an acid-base titration
explain more about this topic
Ayomide Reply
Which topic please?
covalent bond explanation
God has lictured these rules that the electrons move with them and the space time curve. So we prwy to God in Islam or we suffer. Please learn about Islam and science and mention God and thank him.
yes, it is very true. God is the one who inspires science. Then we, as his children, have the privilege to learn about what he has created. I'm still a novis at chemistry. I still have a lot to learn.
Beautiful, however, what I learned from the Quran is that god has created human and has a mission like managing the ecology, building, learning, mentioning god (saying glory to Almighty for instance few times and periodic). And the moat important prayer lile prophet Muhammed the last meassenger.
Also God forgives all sins except assossiating any one with him like sons and daughters or stone sculpture. Beautifully, if some one stops from saying this God can switch their sins to virtueness. And God all merciful doesnt get bored forgiving people who ask for forgiveness.
Also, there is a versw in the Quran that sates: { corruption has appeared in the land and the sea he will taste them from what their hands have gained} this reminds me of covid from stupid politicians who will be throne to hell.
nature of bond in N2 molecule is
Ahmad Reply
Triple covalent bond, and that is why it is hardly reactive because in order to react you must break three strong covalent bonds.
what is electromagnetic energy
Onyekwu Reply
in a school of 120 students, 41studied mathematics, 48studied chemistry and 42 studied physics, 16 studied both chemistry and mathematics, 14 studied mathematics and physics, 18 studied chemistry and physics and 9 studied all the three subjects. how many of them studied exactly one subject?
Kafayat Reply
Does Chromium oxidize?
Jag Reply
@Alaa It doesn't.
yes. it's a very strong oxidizing agent
what is compound
Queen Reply
what are the types of hydrocarbon
Dolapo Reply
homologous series is under what
Don't get your Question.
OK Aliphatic and Aromatic.
What is an acid
Progress Reply
What is hydro carbon
A hydro carbon is an organic compund formed of carbon and hydrogen only that comes from plant derivatives. It is mercy from God as it has lots of benifits. In Islam, we know from the Quran that God has created for every illness a cure. We sometimes find such compunds in plants and we use it in pills
what are the types of hydrocarbon
we have two types of hydrocarbons Aliphatic and Aromatic
under Aliphatic we have Alkane, Alkene,Alkyl Aromatic we have Benzene
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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