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A graph is shown where the x-axis is labeled “Temperature ( degree sign, C )” and has values of negative 100 to 100 in increments of 25 and the y-axis is labeled “Pressure ( k P a )” and has values of 10 to 1,000,000. A line extends from the lower left bottom of the graph upward to a point around“27, 9000,” where it ends. The space under this curve is labeled “Gas.” A second line extends in a curve from point around “-73, 100” to “27, 1,000,000.” The area to the left of this line and above the first line is labeled “Solid” while the area to the right is labeled “Liquid.” A section on the graph under the second line and past the point “28” on the x-axis is labeled “S C F.”
The pressure and temperature axes on this phase diagram of carbon dioxide are not drawn to constant scale in order to illustrate several important properties.

Determining the state of carbon dioxide

Using the phase diagram for carbon dioxide shown in [link] , determine the state of CO 2 at the following temperatures and pressures:

(a) −30 °C and 2000 kPa

(b) −60 °C and 1000 kPa

(c) −60 °C and 100 kPa

(d) 20 °C and 1500 kPa

(e) 0 °C and 100 kPa

(f) 20 °C and 100 kPa

Solution

Using the phase diagram for carbon dioxide provided, we can determine that the state of CO 2 at each temperature and pressure given are as follows: (a) liquid; (b) solid; (c) gas; (d) liquid; (e) gas; (f) gas.

Check your learning

Determine the phase changes carbon dioxide undergoes when its temperature is varied, thus holding its pressure constant at 1500 kPa? At 500 kPa? At what approximate temperatures do these phase changes occur?

Answer:

at 1500 kPa: s l at −45 °C, l g at −10 °C;

at 500 kPa: s g at −58 °C

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Supercritical fluids

If we place a sample of water in a sealed container at 25 °C, remove the air, and let the vaporization-condensation equilibrium establish itself, we are left with a mixture of liquid water and water vapor at a pressure of 0.03 atm. A distinct boundary between the more dense liquid and the less dense gas is clearly observed. As we increase the temperature, the pressure of the water vapor increases, as described by the liquid-gas curve in the phase diagram for water ( [link] ), and a two-phase equilibrium of liquid and gaseous phases remains. At a temperature of 374 °C, the vapor pressure has risen to 218 atm, and any further increase in temperature results in the disappearance of the boundary between liquid and vapor phases. All of the water in the container is now present in a single phase whose physical properties are intermediate between those of the gaseous and liquid states. This phase of matter is called a supercritical fluid    , and the temperature and pressure above which this phase exists is the critical point    ( [link] ). Above its critical temperature, a gas cannot be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. The pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature is called the critical pressure. The critical temperatures and critical pressures of some common substances are given in [link] .

Substance Critical Temperature (K) Critical Pressure (atm)
hydrogen 33.2 12.8
nitrogen 126.0 33.5
oxygen 154.3 49.7
carbon dioxide 304.2 73.0
ammonia 405.5 111.5
sulfur dioxide 430.3 77.7
water 647.1 217.7
Four photographs are shown where each shows a circular container with a green and red float in each. In the left diagram, the container is half filled with a colorless liquid and the floats sit on the surface of the liquid. In the second photo, the green float is near the top and the red float lies near the bottom of the container. In the third photo, the fluid is darker and the green float sits halfway up the container while the red is sitting at the bottom. In the right photo, the liquid is colorless again and the two floats sit on the surface.
(a) A sealed container of liquid carbon dioxide slightly below its critical point is heated, resulting in (b) the formation of the supercritical fluid phase. Cooling the supercritical fluid lowers its temperature and pressure below the critical point, resulting in the reestablishment of separate liquid and gaseous phases (c and d). Colored floats illustrate differences in density between the liquid, gaseous, and supercritical fluid states. (credit: modification of work by “mrmrobin”/YouTube)

Questions & Answers

give two properties of liquid
Grace Reply
what is measurement
Isaiah Reply
is the comparison of an unknown quantity with a fixed quantity of the same kind
Sahada
How does an element differ from a compound? How are they similar?
Adeola Reply
an element is an indivisible particles that can take part in a reaction and consist of smaller or tiny particles i.e proton, neutrons and electron while a compound is when two or more element chemically combine together. They are similar when they are homogeneous compound. they take the same rxn.
Yusuf
an element is s chemically pure substance containing a particular type of atoms.. A COMPOUND is a substance containing atoms from different elements..
Inemesit
How to get the Lewis formula of SeCl+3
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EZEA
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Starch is a mixture (of chemicals) of amylose and amylopectin. Both are macromolecules and polymers. You can search on wikipedia.
Abdelkarim
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Fathmat
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Fathmat
what is the roles of chlorine
Fathmat
Roles can be classified or correlate it to different areas: For example: Chlorine can be used in reactions (in industry) to manufacture HCl, which then can be used for other things. Or in swimming pools to kill bacteria. Or as a component in compounds with pharmaceutical roles (drugs). For Al:
Abdelkarim
Its dentisty value is suitable to be used in alloys (mixture of metals) in aircraft bodies. Also, Aluminium foils, Tin cans,.. Some of them are also in Al overhead cables in streets and long roads.
Abdelkarim
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Maxamed
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Yushao Reply
it is an adverb which means extremely
Rohini
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Gladys Reply
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
Lewis structure for no3
Gladys
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Muhammed Reply
It is an acid which partially ionises in water.
Abdelkarim
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Clifton
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Clifton
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Aliyu
too
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Sourav
what is pressure?
Slark Reply
The force applied to suction Area of the body
Ahmed
Matter composed of exceedingly small paticle called atom.
Yushao
questions related to metals
Regina Reply
occurrence and preparation of the representatives metals
Regina
list the 20, periodic table and their symbols
Fathmat Reply
hydrogen:h helium;he lithium:l beryllium:be Boron:b Carbon;C Nitrogen:n Oxygen:O FLUORINE:f Neon:n Sodium:s Magnesium:mg Aluminum:a Silicon:s Phosphorus:p Sulphur:s Chlorine:c Argon;a Potassium:p Calcium:c
Benita
Hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, sodium, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, argon, potassium, calcium
Cudjoe
what is a solute
Ekezie Reply
Any substance that is disolved in a liqid solvent to create a solution
Fifa
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Fifa
it's a liquid substance
Fathmat
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Ayomide
is the substance that dissolves in the solvent
Amos
so is HCl ionic compound
Honest Reply
No, covalent compound ➡️ molecule. As both H and Cl are non-metals and and form covalent bind by sharing valence e-. But can fully ionice in water forming H+ (a proton, a reason for acidity) and Cl- (anion =Chloride) Hydrogen Chloride is a gas at room; Hydrochloric acid = HCl (aq), dissolved in w
Abdelkarim
Form covalenr bond*
Abdelkarim
The question marks are an emoji in the first sentence is an unread emoji. HCl Covalent compund -> molecule
Abdelkarim
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Queen
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Calvin
Yh
Cudjoe
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Amos
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Chukwu Reply
is the study of composition of substances and the way they behave under different conditions
Amos
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Clifton
is the study of properties of matter and it's component
Grace
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Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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