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The solid-vapor curve, labeled AB in [link] , indicates the temperatures and pressures at which ice and water vapor are in equilibrium. These temperature-pressure data pairs correspond to the sublimation, or deposition, points for water. If we could zoom in on the solid-gas line in [link] , we would see that ice has a vapor pressure of about 0.20 kPa at −10 °C. Thus, if we place a frozen sample in a vacuum with a pressure less than 0.20 kPa, ice will sublime. This is the basis for the “freeze-drying” process often used to preserve foods, such as the ice cream shown in [link] .

A photograph shows a package with a rocket being launched on the front and a block of pink, white and brown striped solid in a wrapper next to it.
Freeze-dried foods, like this ice cream, are dehydrated by sublimation at pressures below the triple point for water. (credit: ʺlwaoʺ/Flickr)

The solid-liquid curve labeled BD shows the temperatures and pressures at which ice and liquid water are in equilibrium, representing the melting/freezing points for water. Note that this curve exhibits a slight negative slope (greatly exaggerated for clarity), indicating that the melting point for water decreases slightly as pressure increases. Water is an unusual substance in this regard, as most substances exhibit an increase in melting point with increasing pressure. This behavior is partly responsible for the movement of glaciers, like the one shown in [link] . The bottom of a glacier experiences an immense pressure due to its weight that can melt some of the ice, forming a layer of liquid water on which the glacier may more easily slide.

A photograph shows an aerial view of a land mass. The white mass of a glacier is shown near the top left quadrant of the photo and leads to two branching blue rivers. The open land is shown in brown.
The immense pressures beneath glaciers result in partial melting to produce a layer of water that provides lubrication to assist glacial movement. This satellite photograph shows the advancing edge of the Perito Moreno glacier in Argentina. (credit: NASA)

The point of intersection of all three curves is labeled B in [link] . At the pressure and temperature represented by this point, all three phases of water coexist in equilibrium. This temperature-pressure data pair is called the triple point    . At pressures lower than the triple point, water cannot exist as a liquid, regardless of the temperature.

Determining the state of water

Using the phase diagram for water given in [link] , determine the state of water at the following temperatures and pressures:

(a) −10 °C and 50 kPa

(b) 25 °C and 90 kPa

(c) 50 °C and 40 kPa

(d) 80 °C and 5 kPa

(e) −10 °C and 0.3 kPa

(f) 50 °C and 0.3 kPa


Using the phase diagram for water, we can determine that the state of water at each temperature and pressure given are as follows: (a) solid; (b) liquid; (c) liquid; (d) gas; (e) solid; (f) gas.

Check your learning

What phase changes can water undergo as the temperature changes if the pressure is held at 0.3 kPa? If the pressure is held at 50 kPa?


At 0.3 kPa: s g at −58 °C. At 50 kPa: s l at 0 °C, l ⟶ g at 78 °C

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Consider the phase diagram for carbon dioxide shown in [link] as another example. The solid-liquid curve exhibits a positive slope, indicating that the melting point for CO 2 increases with pressure as it does for most substances (water being a notable exception as described previously). Notice that the triple point is well above 1 atm, indicating that carbon dioxide cannot exist as a liquid under ambient pressure conditions. Instead, cooling gaseous carbon dioxide at 1 atm results in its deposition into the solid state. Likewise, solid carbon dioxide does not melt at 1 atm pressure but instead sublimes to yield gaseous CO 2 . Finally, notice that the critical point for carbon dioxide is observed at a relatively modest temperature and pressure in comparison to water.

Questions & Answers

why the elements of group 7 are called Noble gases
isaac Reply
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chemistry is the branch of science which deal with the composition of matter
discuss the orbital stracture of the following methane,ethane,ethylene,acetylene
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Why phosphurs in solid state have one atom but in gas state have four atoms
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the types of hydrocarbons
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aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons
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yes and also increases across the period
for instance when you look at one group of elements in a periodic table electronegativity decreases when you go across the table electronegativity increases. hydrogen is more electronegative than sodium, potassium of that group. oxygen is more electronegative than carbon.
i hope we all know that organic compounds have carbon as their back bone
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what is the oxidation number of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur
5, -2 & -2
What is an atom?
Adazion Reply
is a smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist
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it is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units by any chemical reaction
An atom is the smallest part of an element dat can take part in chemical reaction.
an atom is the smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction nd still retain it chemical properties
Is the smallest particles of an element that take part in chemical reaction without been change
what are the branches of an atomic mass
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between H2SO4 and HCL which is the strongest dehydrating agent ?
HCl is the strongest dehydrating agent
ᴡʜᴀᴛ ᴡɪʟʟ ᴏʙsᴇʀᴠᴇᴅ ɪғ ʟᴇᴀᴅ(ɪɪ)ɴɪᴛʀᴀᴛᴇs ɪs ᴀᴅᴅᴇᴅ ᴏɴ ᴛᴏ sᴏᴅɪᴜᴍ ɪᴏᴅɪᴅᴇ sᴏʟᴜᴛɪᴏɴ
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Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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