# 1.4 Measurements

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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Explain the process of measurement
• Identify the three basic parts of a quantity
• Describe the properties and units of length, mass, volume, density, temperature, and time
• Perform basic unit calculations and conversions in the metric and other unit systems

Measurements provide the macroscopic information that is the basis of most of the hypotheses, theories, and laws that describe the behavior of matter and energy in both the macroscopic and microscopic domains of chemistry. Every measurement provides three kinds of information: the size or magnitude of the measurement (a number); a standard of comparison for the measurement (a unit); and an indication of the uncertainty of the measurement. While the number and unit are explicitly represented when a quantity is written, the uncertainty is an aspect of the measurement result that is more implicitly represented and will be discussed later.

The number in the measurement can be represented in different ways, including decimal form and scientific notation. (Scientific notation is also known as exponential notation; a review of this topic can be found in Appendix B .) For example, the maximum takeoff weight of a Boeing 777-200ER airliner is 298,000 kilograms, which can also be written as 2.98 $×$ 10 5 kg. The mass of the average mosquito is about 0.0000025 kilograms, which can be written as 2.5 $×$ 10 −6 kg.

Units , such as liters, pounds, and centimeters, are standards of comparison for measurements. When we buy a 2-liter bottle of a soft drink, we expect that the volume of the drink was measured, so it is two times larger than the volume that everyone agrees to be 1 liter. The meat used to prepare a 0.25-pound hamburger is measured so it weighs one-fourth as much as 1 pound. Without units, a number can be meaningless, confusing, or possibly life threatening. Suppose a doctor prescribes phenobarbital to control a patient’s seizures and states a dosage of “100” without specifying units. Not only will this be confusing to the medical professional giving the dose, but the consequences can be dire: 100 mg given three times per day can be effective as an anticonvulsant, but a single dose of 100 g is more than 10 times the lethal amount.

We usually report the results of scientific measurements in SI units, an updated version of the metric system, using the units listed in [link] . Other units can be derived from these base units. The standards for these units are fixed by international agreement, and they are called the International System of Units or SI Units (from the French, Le Système International d’Unités ). SI units have been used by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) since 1964.

Base Units of the SI System
Property Measured Name of Unit Symbol of Unit
length meter m
mass kilogram kg
time second s
temperature kelvin K
electric current ampere A
amount of substance mole mol
luminous intensity candela cd

Sometimes we use units that are fractions or multiples of a base unit. Ice cream is sold in quarts (a familiar, non-SI base unit), pints (0.5 quart), or gallons (4 quarts). We also use fractions or multiples of units in the SI system, but these fractions or multiples are always powers of 10. Fractional or multiple SI units are named using a prefix and the name of the base unit. For example, a length of 1000 meters is also called a kilometer because the prefix kilo means “one thousand,” which in scientific notation is 10 3 (1 kilometer = 1000 m = 10 3 m). The prefixes used and the powers to which 10 are raised are listed in [link] .

what is d meaning of organic chemistry
it's a compound that comprises of hydrocarbon
Omoru
what iz alkanol
alkanol there are organic compounds with the functional group of ROH and relative molecular formula (CnH2n+1+OH)
Omoru
ok tnk u
icha
you are welcome
Omoru
Sam. A
frbsaz
What's alkaline soil
a system in which only energy is transferred between the system and the surrounding is called?
which Element exhibit diagonal relationship with aluminum
Ani
following processes: Solid phosphorus pentachloride decomposes to liquid phosphorus trichloride and chlorine gas b. Deep blue solid copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate is heated to drive off water vapor to form white solid copper(II) sulfate
Ssskma
frbsaz
How to know periodic table oftend
u can know it through singing it as song it simple
Elizabeth
how to get atomic number of an element
how do you solve the examples in a much more explanatory way
Ogunleye
it seems by multiplying d number of d element by 2
Elizabeth
E.g like carbon 6*2=12 so d atomic number is 12
Elizabeth
The reaction of aceto nitrile with propane in the presence of the acid
Sskma
frbsaz
Explain this paragraph in short
What is solid state?
What is chemical reaction
Manish
transforming reactants to product(s)
Andre
process
Andre
solid state is composed of tightly particles and it has a definite shape and volume
Elizabeth
Example of Lewis acid
Example of Lewis acid
Chidera
Chlorine
Anything with an empty orbital... the hydrogen ion is the most common example. BH3 is the typical example, but any metal in a coordination complex can be considered a Lewis acid.
Eszter
okay thanks
Jovial
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulfide.How many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulphide how many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide?
Soni
aluminium and sulphur react to give aluminium sulphide how many grams of Al are required to produce 100g of aluminium sulphide?
Soni
2Al+3S=Al2S3
galina
m(Al)=100×27×2/150=36g
galina
150 comes from?
Soni
thank you very much
Soni
molar mass of Al2S3
galina
150.158
thiru
what's periodic table
Agnes
Why can't atom be created or destroyed
matter simply converts to pure energy
that's nice
Meshach
explain how to distinguish ethanol from a sample of ethanoic acid by chemical test
explain how ethanol can be distinguished from ethanoic acid by chemical test
Alice
Using a suitable experiment, describe how diffusion occurs in gases.
when the excited energy which are in gaseous state collides with another to liberate from one place to another
Meshach