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While many elements differ dramatically in their chemical and physical properties, some elements have similar properties. We can identify sets of elements that exhibit common behaviors. For example, many elements conduct heat and electricity well, whereas others are poor conductors. These properties can be used to sort the elements into three classes: metals (elements that conduct well), nonmetals (elements that conduct poorly), and metalloids (elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals).

The periodic table is a table of elements that places elements with similar properties close together ( [link] ). You will learn more about the periodic table as you continue your study of chemistry.

On this depiction of the periodic table, the metals are indicated with a yellow color and dominate the left two thirds of the periodic table. The nonmetals are colored peach and are largely confined to the upper right area of the table, with the exception of hydrogen, H, which is located in the extreme upper left of the table. The metalloids are colored purple and form a diagonal border between the metal and nonmetal areas of the table. Group 13 contains both metals and metalloids. Group 17 contains both nonmetals and metalloids. Groups 14 through 16 contain at least one representative of a metal, a metalloid, and a nonmetal. A key shows that, at room temperature, metals are solids, metalloids are liquids, and nonmetals are gases.
The periodic table shows how elements may be grouped according to certain similar properties. Note the background color denotes whether an element is a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal, whereas the element symbol color indicates whether it is a solid, liquid, or gas.

Key concepts and summary

All substances have distinct physical and chemical properties, and may undergo physical or chemical changes. Physical properties, such as hardness and boiling point, and physical changes, such as melting or freezing, do not involve a change in the composition of matter. Chemical properties, such flammability and acidity, and chemical changes, such as rusting, involve production of matter that differs from that present beforehand.

Measurable properties fall into one of two categories. Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter present, for example, the mass of gold. Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present, for example, the density of gold. Heat is an example of an extensive property, and temperature is an example of an intensive property.

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Classify the six underlined properties in the following paragraph as chemical or physical:

Fluorine is a pale yellow gas that reacts with most substances . The free element melts at −220 °C and boils at −188 °C . Finely divided metals burn in fluorine with a bright flame. Nineteen grams of fluorine will react with 1.0 gram of hydrogen .

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Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical:

(a) condensation of steam

(b) burning of gasoline

(c) souring of milk

(d) dissolving of sugar in water

(e) melting of gold

(a) physical; (b) chemical; (c) chemical; (d) physical; (e) physical

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Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical:

(a) coal burning

(b) ice melting

(c) mixing chocolate syrup with milk

(d) explosion of a firecracker

(e) magnetizing of a screwdriver

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The volume of a sample of oxygen gas changed from 10 mL to 11 mL as the temperature changed. Is this a chemical or physical change?


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A 2.0-liter volume of hydrogen gas combined with 1.0 liter of oxygen gas to produce 2.0 liters of water vapor. Does oxygen undergo a chemical or physical change?

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Explain the difference between extensive properties and intensive properties.

The value of an extensive property depends upon the amount of matter being considered, whereas the value of an intensive property is the same regardless of the amount of matter being considered.

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Identify the following properties as either extensive or intensive.

(a) volume

(b) temperature

(c) humidity

(d) heat

(e) boiling point

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The density (d) of a substance is an intensive property that is defined as the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V).

density = mass volume d = m V

Considering that mass and volume are both extensive properties, explain why their ratio, density, is intensive.

Being extensive properties, both mass and volume are directly proportional to the amount of substance under study. Dividing one extensive property by another will in effect “cancel” this dependence on amount, yielding a ratio that is independent of amount (an intensive property).

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Questions & Answers

Modern Electronic Theory
Levi Reply
find the volume of oxygen produced from the electrolysis of acidified water of a current of a 2A was passed through the electrolysis of acidified water for 2 hours
Ngwu Reply
A group of atoms that are connected by chemical bounds
Valerie Reply
the atoms are found in the shell, it is called atomic bond.
what is molecules
Kelly Reply
what atoms
Moecules are groups of atoms
What is collision theory
Isah Reply
hello guys am new here
Andrew Reply
what is the si unit for energy
enow Reply
what is Charles law
how do mass of solvent be gram or kilogram ?
Yussuf Reply
by converting
its a force a gas exerts on the wall of the container
udoh Reply
compressed it is
what is gas pressure
Sandra Reply
the pressure is the amount of Gas that is compressed in the container. in other words because of the gas that is compressed in the container there is pressure on it.
write the electron configuration for probium
Magano Reply
what is an accuracy
amadi Reply
what is it
accuracy has to do with speed
accuracy is the movement of an object in a particular direction without any obstructions.
what is titration curve
johnson Reply
a titration curve is the separation of a solvent in a curved direction.
explain gaslaws
Felix Reply
explain accuracy
gas law states that the amount of molecule in the container is inversely proportional to the pressure.
what is the functional group in this compound:CH3COCH2CH2-O-CH2
Obafemi Reply
this belongs to the Akane family. after going through this, I noticed the structural formula you gave was wrong. The answer to this is C5H10 heptane.
Practice Key Terms 6

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry. OpenStax CNX. May 20, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9
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