# 1.3 Physical and chemical properties  (Page 3/9)

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While many elements differ dramatically in their chemical and physical properties, some elements have similar properties. We can identify sets of elements that exhibit common behaviors. For example, many elements conduct heat and electricity well, whereas others are poor conductors. These properties can be used to sort the elements into three classes: metals (elements that conduct well), nonmetals (elements that conduct poorly), and metalloids (elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals).

The periodic table is a table of elements that places elements with similar properties close together ( [link] ). You will learn more about the periodic table as you continue your study of chemistry.

## Key concepts and summary

All substances have distinct physical and chemical properties, and may undergo physical or chemical changes. Physical properties, such as hardness and boiling point, and physical changes, such as melting or freezing, do not involve a change in the composition of matter. Chemical properties, such flammability and acidity, and chemical changes, such as rusting, involve production of matter that differs from that present beforehand.

Measurable properties fall into one of two categories. Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter present, for example, the mass of gold. Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter present, for example, the density of gold. Heat is an example of an extensive property, and temperature is an example of an intensive property.

## Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Classify the six underlined properties in the following paragraph as chemical or physical:

Fluorine is a pale yellow gas that reacts with most substances . The free element melts at −220 °C and boils at −188 °C . Finely divided metals burn in fluorine with a bright flame. Nineteen grams of fluorine will react with 1.0 gram of hydrogen .

Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical:

(a) condensation of steam

(b) burning of gasoline

(c) souring of milk

(d) dissolving of sugar in water

(e) melting of gold

(a) physical; (b) chemical; (c) chemical; (d) physical; (e) physical

Classify each of the following changes as physical or chemical:

(a) coal burning

(b) ice melting

(c) mixing chocolate syrup with milk

(d) explosion of a firecracker

(e) magnetizing of a screwdriver

The volume of a sample of oxygen gas changed from 10 mL to 11 mL as the temperature changed. Is this a chemical or physical change?

physical

A 2.0-liter volume of hydrogen gas combined with 1.0 liter of oxygen gas to produce 2.0 liters of water vapor. Does oxygen undergo a chemical or physical change?

Explain the difference between extensive properties and intensive properties.

The value of an extensive property depends upon the amount of matter being considered, whereas the value of an intensive property is the same regardless of the amount of matter being considered.

Identify the following properties as either extensive or intensive.

(a) volume

(b) temperature

(c) humidity

(d) heat

(e) boiling point

The density (d) of a substance is an intensive property that is defined as the ratio of its mass (m) to its volume (V).

$\text{density}=\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{\text{mass}}{\text{volume}}\phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\text{d}=\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{\text{m}}{\text{V}}$

Considering that mass and volume are both extensive properties, explain why their ratio, density, is intensive.

Being extensive properties, both mass and volume are directly proportional to the amount of substance under study. Dividing one extensive property by another will in effect “cancel” this dependence on amount, yielding a ratio that is independent of amount (an intensive property).

Modern Electronic Theory
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