Neuroanatomy 07 The Visual System


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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Quiz PDF eBook: 
Neuroanatomy 07 The Visual System
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19 Pages
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Sample Questions from the Neuroanatomy 07 The Visual System Quiz

Question: This artery is a branch of the


Basilar artery.

Middle cerebral artery.

Anterior cerebral artery.

Anterior choroidal artery.

Question: The central retinal artery is a branch of the


Ophthalmic artery.

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery.

Ciliary arteries.

Anterior choroidal artery.

Question: Retinal detachment occurs because this region (arrow)


Is the site of fusion of the optic cup and optic vesicle.

Is poorly vascularized.

The pigment epithelium is part of the choroid and adheres to it.

Question: This region is characterized by


Absence of bipolar cells.

Lack of blood vessels.

Absence of ganglion cells.

Absence of rods.

All of the above.

Question: This area of cortex is supplied by branches of the


Posterior cerebral artery.

Middle cerebral artery.

Anterior cerebral artery.

Anterior choroidal artery.

Question: This area is necessary for the


Accommodation reflex.

Pupillary light reflex.


Night vision.

Question: Where do the axons of these cells go?


The optic disc.

The inner plexiform layer.

The outer plexiform layer.

All of the above.

None of the above.

Question: Most cell bodies of neurons in this nucleus send their axons to


Upper and lower calcarine cortex.

Lower half of calcarine cortex.

Upper half of calcarine cortex.

Question: What portion of the visual field is represented in the left lateral geniculate?


The superior half of the visual field of both eyes.

The inferior half of the visual field of both eyes.

The right half of the visual field of one eye.

The right half of the visual field of both eyes.

The left half of the visual field of both eyes.

Question: What part of the ventricular system is closest to the optic radiations?



Posterior horn of the lateral ventricle.

Fourth ventricle.

Third ventricle.

Frontal horn.

Question: What major cerebral vessel is lateral to the chiasm?


Anterior cerebral artery.

Middle cerebral artery.

Internal carotid.

Posterior communicating artery.

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Disclaimer:  This course does NOT provide the education or experience needed for the diagnosing or treating any medical condition, all site contents are provided as general information only and should not be taken as a medical advice.
Source:  Stephen C. Voron, M.D., Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D. , Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132,
Nicole Bartels
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Mike Wolf
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