Card Set: Human Body Anatomy & Physiology Key Terms

A&P Key Terms 01 Human Body Anatomy & Physiology

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1. abdominopelvic cavity division of the anterior (ventral) cavity that houses the abdominal and pelvic viscera
2. anabolism assembly of more complex molecules from simpler molecules
3. anatomical position standard reference position used for describing locations and directions on the human body
4. anatomy science that studies the form and composition of the body's structures
5. anterior cavity larger body cavity located anterior to the posterior (dorsal) body cavity; includes the serous membrane-lined pleural cavities for the lungs, pericardial cavity for the heart, and peritoneal cavity for the abdominal and pelvic organs; also referred to as ventral cavity
6. anterior describes the front or direction toward the front of the body; also referred to as ventral
7. catabolism breaking down of more complex molecules into simpler molecules
8. caudal describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as inferior
9. cell smallest independently functioning unit of all organisms; in animals, a cell contains cytoplasm, composed of fluid and organelles
10. computed tomography (CT) medical imaging technique in which a computer-enhanced cross-sectional X-ray image is obtained
11. control center compares values to their normal range; deviations cause the activation of an effector
12. cranial cavity division of the posterior (dorsal) cavity that houses the brain
13. cranial describes a position above or higher than another part of the body proper; also referred to as superior
14. deep describes a position farther from the surface of the body
15. development changes an organism goes through during its life
16. differentiation process by which unspecialized cells become specialized in structure and function
17. distal describes a position farther from the point of attachment or the trunk of the body
18. dorsal cavity posterior body cavity that houses the brain and spinal cord; also referred to the posterior body cavity
19. dorsal describes the back or direction toward the back of the body; also referred to as posterior effector organ that can cause a change in a value
20. frontal plane two-dimensional, vertical plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions
21. gross anatomy study of the larger structures of the body, typically with the unaided eye; also referred to macroscopic anatomy
22. growth process of increasing in size
23. homeostasis steady state of body systems that living organisms maintain
24. inferior describes a position below or lower than another part of the body proper; near or toward the tail (in humans, the coccyx, or lowest part of the spinal column); also referred to as caudal
25. lateral describes the side or direction toward the side of the body
26. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical imaging technique in which a device generates a magnetic field to obtain detailed sectional images of the internal structures of the body
27. medial describes the middle or direction toward the middle of the body
28. metabolism sum of all of the body's chemical reactions
29. microscopic anatomy study of very small structures of the body using magnification
30. negative feedback homeostatic mechanism that tends to stabilize an upset in the body's physiological condition by preventing an excessive response to a stimulus, typically as the stimulus is removed
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