Card Set: Anatomy & Physiology Key Terms: Chemical Level

A&P Key Terms 02 Chemical Level of Organization


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1. acid compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
2. activation energy amount of energy greater than the energy contained in the reactants, which must be overcome for a reaction to proceed
3. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) nucleotide containing ribose and an adenine base that is essential in energy transfer
4. amino acid building block of proteins; characterized by an amino and carboxyl functional groups and a variable side-chain
5. anion atom with a negative charge
6. atom smallest unit of an element that retains the unique properties of that element
7. atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
8. base compound that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
9. bond electrical force linking atoms
10. buffer solution containing a weak acid or a weak base that opposes wide fluctuations in the pH of body fluids
11. carbohydrate class of organic compounds built from sugars, molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1-2-1 ratio
12. catalyst substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed in the process
13. cation atom with a positive charge
14. chemical energy form of energy that is absorbed as chemical bonds form, stored as they are maintained, and released as they are broken
15. colloid liquid mixture in which the solute particles consist of clumps of molecules large enough to scatter light
16. compound substance composed of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
17. concentration number of particles within a given space
18. covalent bond chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons, thereby completing their valence shells
19. decomposition reaction type of catabolic reaction in which one or more bonds within a larger molecule are broken, resulting in the release of smaller molecules or atoms
20. denaturation change in the structure of a molecule through physical or chemical means
21. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) deoxyribose-containing nucleotide that stores genetic information
22. disaccharide pair of carbohydrate monomers bonded by dehydration synthesis via a glycosidic bond
23. disulfide bond covalent bond formed within a polypeptide between sulfide groups of sulfur-containing amino acids, for example, cysteine
24. electron shell area of space a given distance from an atom's nucleus in which electrons are grouped
25. electron subatomic particle having a negative charge and nearly no mass; found orbiting the atom's nucleus
26. element substance that cannot be created or broken down by ordinary chemical means
27. enzyme protein or RNA that catalyzes chemical reactions
28. exchange reaction type of chemical reaction in which bonds are both formed and broken, resulting in the transfer of components
29. functional group group of atoms linked by strong covalent bonds that tends to behave as a distinct unit in chemical reactions with other atoms
30. hydrogen bond dipole-dipole bond in which a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom is weakly attracted to a second electronegative atom
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