Card Set: Anatomy & Physiology Key Terms Cellular Level

A&P Key Terms 03 Cellular Level of Organization

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1. active transport form of transport across the cell membrane that requires input of cellular energy
2. amphipathic describes a molecule that exhibits a difference in polarity between its two ends, resulting in a difference in water solubility
3. anaphase third stage of mitosis (and meiosis), during which sister chromatids separate into two new nuclear regions of a dividing cell
4. anticodon consecutive sequence of three nucleotides on a tRNA molecule that is complementary to a specific codon on an mRNA molecule
5. autolysis breakdown of cells by their own enzymatic action
6. autophagy lysosomal breakdown of a cell's own components
7. cell cycle life cycle of a single cell, from its birth until its division into two new daughter cells
8. cell membrane membrane surrounding all animal cells, composed of a lipid bilayer interspersed with various molecules; also known as plasma membrane
9. centriole small, self-replicating organelle that provides the origin for microtubule growth and moves DNA during cell division
10. centromere region of attachment for two sister chromatids
11. centrosome cellular structure that organizes microtubules during cell division
12. channel protein membrane-spanning protein that has an inner pore which allows the passage of one or more substances
13. checkpoint progress point in the cell cycle during which certain conditions must be met in order for the cell to proceed to a subsequence phase
14. chromatin substance consisting of DNA and associated proteins
15. chromosome condensed version of chromatin
16. cilia small appendage on certain cells formed by microtubules and modified for movement of materials across the cellular surface
17. cleavage furrow contractile ring that forms around a cell during cytokinesis that pinches the cell into two halves
18. codon consecutive sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA molecule that corresponds to a specific amino acid
19. concentration gradient difference in the concentration of a substance between two regions
20. cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) one of a group of enzymes associated with cyclins that help them perform their functions
21. cyclin one of a group of proteins that function in the progression of the cell cycle
22. cytokinesis final stage in cell division, where the cytoplasm divides to form two separate daughter cells
23. cytoplasm internal material between the cell membrane and nucleus of a cell, mainly consisting of a water-based fluid called cytosol, within which are all the other organelles and cellular solute and suspended materials
24. cytoskeleton "skeleton" of a cell; formed by rod-like proteins that support the cell's shape and provide, among other functions, locomotive abilities
25. cytosol clear, semi-fluid medium of the cytoplasm, made up mostly of water
26. DNA polymerase enzyme that functions in adding new nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA during DNA replication
27. DNA replication process of duplicating a molecule of DNA
28. diffusion movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration
29. diploid condition marked by the presence of a double complement of genetic material (two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each of two parents)
30. electrical gradient difference in the electrical charge (potential) between two regions
Jemekia Weeden
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Robert Murphy
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