<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

This is a Riemann sum, so taking the limit gives us the exact force. We obtain

F = lim n i = 1 n ρ [ w ( x i * ) Δ x ] s ( x i * ) = a b ρ w ( x ) s ( x ) d x .

Evaluating this integral gives us the force on the plate. We summarize this in the following problem-solving strategy.

Problem-solving strategy: finding hydrostatic force

  1. Sketch a picture and select an appropriate frame of reference. (Note that if we select a frame of reference other than the one used earlier, we may have to adjust [link] accordingly.)
  2. Determine the depth and width functions, s ( x ) and w ( x ) .
  3. Determine the weight-density of whatever liquid with which you are working. The weight-density of water is 62.4 lb/ft 3 , or 9800 N/m 3 .
  4. Use the equation to calculate the total force.

Finding hydrostatic force

A water trough 15 ft long has ends shaped like inverted isosceles triangles, with base 8 ft and height 3 ft. Find the force on one end of the trough if the trough is full of water.

[link] shows the trough and a more detailed view of one end.

This figure has two images. The first is a water trough with rectangular sides. The length of the trough is 15 feet, the depth is 3 feet, and the width is 8 feet. The second image is a cross section of the trough. It is a triangle. The top has length of 8 feet and the sides have length 5 feet. The altitude is labeled with 3 feet.
(a) A water trough with a triangular cross-section. (b) Dimensions of one end of the water trough.

Select a frame of reference with the x -axis oriented vertically and the downward direction being positive. Select the top of the trough as the point corresponding to x = 0 (step 1). The depth function, then, is s ( x ) = x . Using similar triangles, we see that w ( x ) = 8 ( 8 / 3 ) x (step 2). Now, the weight density of water is 62.4 lb/ft 3 (step 3), so applying [link] , we obtain

F = a b ρ w ( x ) s ( x ) d x = 0 3 62.4 ( 8 8 3 x ) x d x = 62.4 0 3 ( 8 x 8 3 x 2 ) d x = 62.4 [ 4 x 2 8 9 x 3 ] | 0 3 = 748.8.

The water exerts a force of 748.8 lb on the end of the trough (step 4).

Got questions? Get instant answers now!
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

A water trough 12 m long has ends shaped like inverted isosceles triangles, with base 6 m and height 4 m. Find the force on one end of the trough if the trough is full of water.

156,800 N

Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Chapter opener: finding hydrostatic force

We now return our attention to the Hoover Dam , mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. The actual dam is arched, rather than flat, but we are going to make some simplifying assumptions to help us with the calculations. Assume the face of the Hoover Dam is shaped like an isosceles trapezoid with lower base 750 ft, upper base 1250 ft, and height 750 ft (see the following figure).

This figure has two images. The first is a picture of a dam. The second image beside the dam is a trapezoidal figure representing the dimensions of the dam. The top is 1250 feet, the bottom is 750 feet. The height is 750 feet.

When the reservoir is full, Lake Mead’s maximum depth is about 530 ft, and the surface of the lake is about 10 ft below the top of the dam (see the following figure).

This figure is a trapezoid with the longer side on top. There is a smaller trapezoid inside the first with height labeled 530 feet. It is also 10 feet below the top of the larger trapezoid.
A simplified model of the Hoover Dam with assumed dimensions.
  1. Find the force on the face of the dam when the reservoir is full.
  2. The southwest United States has been experiencing a drought, and the surface of Lake Mead is about 125 ft below where it would be if the reservoir were full. What is the force on the face of the dam under these circumstances?
  1. We begin by establishing a frame of reference. As usual, we choose to orient the x -axis vertically, with the downward direction being positive. This time, however, we are going to let x = 0 represent the top of the dam, rather than the surface of the water. When the reservoir is full, the surface of the water is 10 ft below the top of the dam, so s ( x ) = x 10 (see the following figure).
    This figure is a trapezoid with the longer side on top. There is a smaller trapezoid inside the first with height labeled s(x)=x-10. It represents the depth of the water. It is also 10 feet below the top of the larger trapezoid. The top of the larger trapezoid is at x=0.
    We first choose a frame of reference.

    To find the width function, we again turn to similar triangles as shown in the figure below.
    This figure has two images. The first is a trapezoid with larger side on the top. The length of the top is divided into 3 measures. The first measure is 250 feet, the second is 750 feet, and the third is 250 feet. The height of the trapezoid is 750 feet. The length of the bottom is 750 feet. Inside of the trapezoid the width is labeled w(x). Inside if one of the triangular sides is the width r. The second image is the same trapezoid. It has the height labeled as 750 feet. Inside the trapezoid it has the height divided into two segments. The first is labeled x, and the second is labeled 750-x. On the side of the trapezoid a triangle has been formed by a vertical line from the bottom side to the top. Inside of the triangle is a horizontal line segment labeled r.
    We use similar triangles to determine a function for the width of the dam. (a) Assumed dimensions of the dam; (b) highlighting the similar triangles.

    From the figure, we see that w ( x ) = 750 + 2 r . Using properties of similar triangles, we get r = 250 ( 1 / 3 ) x . Thus,
    w ( x ) = 1250 2 3 x (step 2).

    Using a weight-density of 62.4 lb/ft 3 (step 3) and applying [link] , we get
    F = a b ρ w ( x ) s ( x ) d x = 10 540 62.4 ( 1250 2 3 x ) ( x 10 ) d x = 62.4 10 540 2 3 [ x 2 1885 x + 18750 ] d x = −62.4 ( 2 3 ) [ x 3 3 1885 x 2 2 + 18750 x ] | 10 540 8,832,245,000 lb = 4,416,122.5 t .

Note the change from pounds to tons ( 2000 lb = 1 ton) (step 4). This changes our depth function, s ( x ) , and our limits of integration. We have s ( x ) = x 135 . The lower limit of integration is 135 . The upper limit remains 540 . Evaluating the integral, we get

F = a b ρ w ( x ) s ( x ) d x = 135 540 62.4 ( 1250 2 3 x ) ( x 135 ) d x = −62.4 ( 2 3 ) 135 540 ( x 1875 ) ( x 135 ) d x = −62.4 ( 2 3 ) 135 540 ( x 2 2010 x + 253125 ) d x = −62.4 ( 2 3 ) [ x 3 3 1005 x 2 + 253125 x ] | 135 540 5,015,230,000 lb = 2,507,615 t .
Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Questions & Answers

Find the arc length of the graph of f(x) = In (sinx) on the interval [Π/4, Π/2].
mukul Reply
Sand falling freely from a lorry form a conical shape whose height is always equal to one-third the radius of the base. a. How fast is the volume increasing when the radius of the base is (1m) and increasing at the rate of 1/4cm/sec Pls help me solve
ade
show that lim f(x) + lim g(x)=m+l
BARNABAS Reply
list the basic elementary differentials
Chio Reply
Differentiation and integration
Okikiola Reply
yes
Damien
proper definition of derivative
Syed Reply
the maximum rate of change of one variable with respect to another variable
Amdad
terms of an AP is 1/v and the vth term is 1/u show that the sum of uv terms is 1/2(uv+1)
Inembo Reply
what is calculus?
BISWAJIT Reply
calculus is math that studies the change in math, such as the rate and distance,
Tamarcus
what are the topics in calculus
Augustine
what is limit of a function?
Geoffrey Reply
what is x and how x=9.1 take?
Pravin Reply
what is f(x)
Inembo Reply
the function at x
Marc
also known as the y value so I could say y=2x or f(x)= 2x same thing just using functional notation your next question is what is dependent and independent variables. I am Dyslexic but know math and which is which confuses me. but one can vary the x value while y depends on which x you use. also
Marc
up domain and range
Marc
enjoy your work and good luck
Marc
I actually wanted to ask another questions on sets if u dont mind please?
Inembo
I have so many questions on set and I really love dis app I never believed u would reply
Inembo
Hmm go ahead and ask you got me curious too much conversation here
Adri
am sorry for disturbing I really want to know math that's why *I want to know the meaning of those symbols in sets* e.g n,U,A', etc pls I want to know it and how to solve its problems
Inembo
and how can i solve a question like dis *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
next questions what do dy mean by (A' n B^c)^c'
Inembo
The sets help you to define the function. The function is like a magic box where you put inside stuff(numbers or sets) and you get out the stuff but in different shapes (forms).
Adri
I dont understand what you wanna say by (A' n B^c)^c'
Adri
(A' n B (rise to the power of c)) all rise to the power of c
Inembo
Aaaahh
Adri
Ok so the set is formed by vectors and not numbers
Adri
A vector of length n
Adri
But you can make a set out of matrixes as well
Adri
I I don't even understand sets I wat to know d meaning of all d symbolsnon sets
Inembo
Wait what's your math level?
Adri
High-school?
Adri
yes
Inembo
am having big problem understanding sets more than other math topics
Inembo
So f:R->R means that the function takes real numbers and provides real numer. For ex. If f(x) =2x this means if you give to your function a real number like 2,it gives you also a real number 2times2=4
Adri
pls answer this question *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
If you have f:R^n->R^n you give to your function a vector of length n like (a1,a2,...an) where all a1,.. an are reals and gives you also a vector of length n... I don't know if i answering your question. Otherwise on YouTube you havr many videos where they explain it in a simple way
Adri
I would say 24
Adri
Offer both
Adri
Sorry 20
Adri
Actually you have 40 - 4 =36 who offer maths or physics or both.
Adri
I know its 20 but how to prove it
Inembo
You have 32+24=56who offer courses
Adri
56-36=20 who give both courses... I would say that
Adri
solution: In a question involving sets and Venn diagram, the sum of the members of set A + set B - the joint members of both set A and B + the members that are not in sets A or B = the total members of the set. In symbolic form n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) - n (A and B) + n (A U B)'.
Mckenzie
In the case of sets A and B use the letters m and p to represent the sets and we have: n (M U P) = 40; n (M) = 24; n (P) = 32; n (M and P) = unknown; n (M U P)' = 4
Mckenzie
Now substitute the numerical values for the symbolic representation 40 = 24 + 32 - n(M and P) + 4 Now solve for the unknown using algebra: 40 = 24 + 32+ 4 - n(M and P) 40 = 60 - n(M and P) Add n(M and P), as well, subtract 40 from both sides of the equation to find the answer.
Mckenzie
40 - 40 + n(M and P) = 60 - 40 - n(M and P) + n(M and P) Solution: n(M and P) = 20
Mckenzie
thanks
Inembo
Simpler form: Add the sums of set M, set P and the complement of the union of sets M and P then subtract the number of students from the total.
Mckenzie
n(M and P) = (32 + 24 + 4) - 40 = 60 - 40 = 20
Mckenzie
how do i evaluate integral of x^1/2 In x
ayo Reply
first you simplify the given expression, which gives (x^2/2). Then you now integrate the above simplified expression which finally gives( lnx^2).
Ahmad
by using integration product formula
Roha
find derivative f(x)=1/x
Mul Reply
-1/x^2, use the chain rule
Andrew
f(x)=x^3-2x
Mul
what is domin in this question
noman
all real numbers . except zero
Roha
please try to guide me how?
Meher
what do u want to ask
Roha
?
Roha
the domain of the function is all real number excluding zero, because the rational function 1/x is a representation of a fractional equation (precisely inverse function). As in elementary mathematics the concept of dividing by zero is nonexistence, so zero will not make the fractional statement
Mckenzie
a function's answer/range should not be in the form of 1/0 and there should be no imaginary no. say square root of any negative no. (-1)^1/2
Roha
domain means everywhere along the x axis. since this function is not discontinuous anywhere along the x axis, then the domain is said to be all values of x.
Andrew
Derivative of a function
Waqar
right andrew ... this function is only discontinuous at 0
Roha
of sorry, I didn't realize he was taking about the function 1/x ...I thought he was referring to the function x^3-2x.
Andrew
yep...it's 1/x...!!!
Roha
true and cannot be apart of the domain that makes up the relation of the graph y = 1/x. The value of the denominator of the rational function can never be zero, because the result of the output value (range value of the graph when x =0) is undefined.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Therefore, when x = 0 the image of the rational function does not exist at this domain value, but exist at all other x values (domain) that makes the equation functional, and the graph drawable.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Roha are u A Student
Lutf
yes
Roha
What is the first fundermental theory of Calculus?
ZIMBA Reply
do u mean fundamental theorem ?
Roha
I want simple integral
aparna Reply
for MSc chemistry... simple formulas of integration
aparna
hello?
funny
how are you
funny
I don't understand integration
aparna
r u insane
aparna
integration is so simple not typical..
funny
tell me any questions about integration then i will solve.
funny
we use integration for whole values or for sum of values any there are some basic rule for integration..
funny
I just formulas
aparna
I just want formulas of integration
aparna
value of log ax cot-x cos-x
aparna
there are many formulas about integration
funny
more then one formula are exist about integration..
funny
so I want simple formulas Because I'm studying MSc chem...Nd have done bsc from bio...
aparna
I am M.sc physics now i am studying in m.phil
funny
so what can i do
aparna
I will send you basic formula for integration after two mint first of all i write then i will send you.
funny
send me your messenger id where i can send you formulas about integration because there is no option for image sending..
funny
integration f(X) dx this is basic formula of integration sign is not there you can look integration sign in methematics form... and f(X) my be any function any values
funny
you send me your any ID where i can send you information about integration
funny
send me SMS at this ID Adnan sathi Adnan sathi
funny
Hi
RIZWAN
I don't understand the formula
Adaeze Reply
who's formula
funny
which formula?
Roha
what is the advantages of mathematical economics
Mubarak
Practice Key Terms 4

Get the best Calculus volume 1 course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Calculus volume 1' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask