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  • Determine the mass of a one-dimensional object from its linear density function.
  • Determine the mass of a two-dimensional circular object from its radial density function.
  • Calculate the work done by a variable force acting along a line.
  • Calculate the work done in pumping a liquid from one height to another.
  • Find the hydrostatic force against a submerged vertical plate.

In this section, we examine some physical applications of integration. Let’s begin with a look at calculating mass from a density function. We then turn our attention to work, and close the section with a study of hydrostatic force.

Mass and density

We can use integration to develop a formula for calculating mass based on a density function. First we consider a thin rod or wire. Orient the rod so it aligns with the x -axis, with the left end of the rod at x = a and the right end of the rod at x = b ( [link] ). Note that although we depict the rod with some thickness in the figures, for mathematical purposes we assume the rod is thin enough to be treated as a one-dimensional object.

This figure has the x and y axes. On the x-axis is a cylinder, beginning at x=a and ending at x=b.
We can calculate the mass of a thin rod oriented along the x -axis by integrating its density function.

If the rod has constant density ρ , given in terms of mass per unit length, then the mass of the rod is just the product of the density and the length of the rod: ( b a ) ρ . If the density of the rod is not constant, however, the problem becomes a little more challenging. When the density of the rod varies from point to point, we use a linear density function    , ρ ( x ) , to denote the density of the rod at any point, x . Let ρ ( x ) be an integrable linear density function. Now, for i = 0 , 1 , 2 ,… , n let P = { x i } be a regular partition of the interval [ a , b ] , and for i = 1 , 2 ,… , n choose an arbitrary point x i * [ x i 1 , x i ] . [link] shows a representative segment of the rod.

This figure has the x and y axes. On the x-axis is a cylinder, beginning at x=a and ending at x=b. The cylinder has been divided into segments. One segment in the middle begins at xsub(i-1) and ends at xsubi.
A representative segment of the rod.

The mass m i of the segment of the rod from x i 1 to x i is approximated by

m i ρ ( x i * ) ( x i x i 1 ) = ρ ( x i * ) Δ x .

Adding the masses of all the segments gives us an approximation for the mass of the entire rod:

m = i = 1 n m i i = 1 n ρ ( x i * ) Δ x .

This is a Riemann sum. Taking the limit as n , we get an expression for the exact mass of the rod:

m = lim n i = 1 n ρ ( x i * ) Δ x = a b ρ ( x ) d x .

We state this result in the following theorem.

Mass–density formula of a one-dimensional object

Given a thin rod oriented along the x -axis over the interval [ a , b ] , let ρ ( x ) denote a linear density function giving the density of the rod at a point x in the interval. Then the mass of the rod is given by

m = a b ρ ( x ) d x .

We apply this theorem in the next example.

Calculating mass from linear density

Consider a thin rod oriented on the x -axis over the interval [ π / 2 , π ] . If the density of the rod is given by ρ ( x ) = sin x , what is the mass of the rod?

Applying [link] directly, we have

m = a b ρ ( x ) d x = π / 2 π sin x d x = cos x | π / 2 π = 1 .
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Got questions? Get instant answers now!

Consider a thin rod oriented on the x -axis over the interval [ 1 , 3 ] . If the density of the rod is given by ρ ( x ) = 2 x 2 + 3 , what is the mass of the rod?

70 / 3

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We now extend this concept to find the mass of a two-dimensional disk of radius r . As with the rod we looked at in the one-dimensional case, here we assume the disk is thin enough that, for mathematical purposes, we can treat it as a two-dimensional object. We assume the density is given in terms of mass per unit area (called area density ), and further assume the density varies only along the disk’s radius (called radial density ). We orient the disk in the x y -plane, with the center at the origin. Then, the density of the disk can be treated as a function of x , denoted ρ ( x ) . We assume ρ ( x ) is integrable. Because density is a function of x , we partition the interval from [ 0 , r ] along the x -axis . For i = 0 , 1 , 2 ,… , n , let P = { x i } be a regular partition of the interval [ 0 , r ] , and for i = 1 , 2 ,… , n , choose an arbitrary point x i * [ x i 1 , x i ] . Now, use the partition to break up the disk into thin (two-dimensional) washers. A disk and a representative washer are depicted in the following figure.

Questions & Answers

Find the arc length of the graph of f(x) = In (sinx) on the interval [Π/4, Π/2].
mukul Reply
Sand falling freely from a lorry form a conical shape whose height is always equal to one-third the radius of the base. a. How fast is the volume increasing when the radius of the base is (1m) and increasing at the rate of 1/4cm/sec Pls help me solve
ade
show that lim f(x) + lim g(x)=m+l
BARNABAS Reply
list the basic elementary differentials
Chio Reply
Differentiation and integration
Okikiola Reply
yes
Damien
proper definition of derivative
Syed Reply
the maximum rate of change of one variable with respect to another variable
Amdad
terms of an AP is 1/v and the vth term is 1/u show that the sum of uv terms is 1/2(uv+1)
Inembo Reply
what is calculus?
BISWAJIT Reply
calculus is math that studies the change in math, such as the rate and distance,
Tamarcus
what are the topics in calculus
Augustine
what is limit of a function?
Geoffrey Reply
what is x and how x=9.1 take?
Pravin Reply
what is f(x)
Inembo Reply
the function at x
Marc
also known as the y value so I could say y=2x or f(x)= 2x same thing just using functional notation your next question is what is dependent and independent variables. I am Dyslexic but know math and which is which confuses me. but one can vary the x value while y depends on which x you use. also
Marc
up domain and range
Marc
enjoy your work and good luck
Marc
I actually wanted to ask another questions on sets if u dont mind please?
Inembo
I have so many questions on set and I really love dis app I never believed u would reply
Inembo
Hmm go ahead and ask you got me curious too much conversation here
Adri
am sorry for disturbing I really want to know math that's why *I want to know the meaning of those symbols in sets* e.g n,U,A', etc pls I want to know it and how to solve its problems
Inembo
and how can i solve a question like dis *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
next questions what do dy mean by (A' n B^c)^c'
Inembo
The sets help you to define the function. The function is like a magic box where you put inside stuff(numbers or sets) and you get out the stuff but in different shapes (forms).
Adri
I dont understand what you wanna say by (A' n B^c)^c'
Adri
(A' n B (rise to the power of c)) all rise to the power of c
Inembo
Aaaahh
Adri
Ok so the set is formed by vectors and not numbers
Adri
A vector of length n
Adri
But you can make a set out of matrixes as well
Adri
I I don't even understand sets I wat to know d meaning of all d symbolsnon sets
Inembo
Wait what's your math level?
Adri
High-school?
Adri
yes
Inembo
am having big problem understanding sets more than other math topics
Inembo
So f:R->R means that the function takes real numbers and provides real numer. For ex. If f(x) =2x this means if you give to your function a real number like 2,it gives you also a real number 2times2=4
Adri
pls answer this question *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
If you have f:R^n->R^n you give to your function a vector of length n like (a1,a2,...an) where all a1,.. an are reals and gives you also a vector of length n... I don't know if i answering your question. Otherwise on YouTube you havr many videos where they explain it in a simple way
Adri
I would say 24
Adri
Offer both
Adri
Sorry 20
Adri
Actually you have 40 - 4 =36 who offer maths or physics or both.
Adri
I know its 20 but how to prove it
Inembo
You have 32+24=56who offer courses
Adri
56-36=20 who give both courses... I would say that
Adri
solution: In a question involving sets and Venn diagram, the sum of the members of set A + set B - the joint members of both set A and B + the members that are not in sets A or B = the total members of the set. In symbolic form n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) - n (A and B) + n (A U B)'.
Mckenzie
In the case of sets A and B use the letters m and p to represent the sets and we have: n (M U P) = 40; n (M) = 24; n (P) = 32; n (M and P) = unknown; n (M U P)' = 4
Mckenzie
Now substitute the numerical values for the symbolic representation 40 = 24 + 32 - n(M and P) + 4 Now solve for the unknown using algebra: 40 = 24 + 32+ 4 - n(M and P) 40 = 60 - n(M and P) Add n(M and P), as well, subtract 40 from both sides of the equation to find the answer.
Mckenzie
40 - 40 + n(M and P) = 60 - 40 - n(M and P) + n(M and P) Solution: n(M and P) = 20
Mckenzie
thanks
Inembo
Simpler form: Add the sums of set M, set P and the complement of the union of sets M and P then subtract the number of students from the total.
Mckenzie
n(M and P) = (32 + 24 + 4) - 40 = 60 - 40 = 20
Mckenzie
how do i evaluate integral of x^1/2 In x
ayo Reply
first you simplify the given expression, which gives (x^2/2). Then you now integrate the above simplified expression which finally gives( lnx^2).
Ahmad
by using integration product formula
Roha
find derivative f(x)=1/x
Mul Reply
-1/x^2, use the chain rule
Andrew
f(x)=x^3-2x
Mul
what is domin in this question
noman
all real numbers . except zero
Roha
please try to guide me how?
Meher
what do u want to ask
Roha
?
Roha
the domain of the function is all real number excluding zero, because the rational function 1/x is a representation of a fractional equation (precisely inverse function). As in elementary mathematics the concept of dividing by zero is nonexistence, so zero will not make the fractional statement
Mckenzie
a function's answer/range should not be in the form of 1/0 and there should be no imaginary no. say square root of any negative no. (-1)^1/2
Roha
domain means everywhere along the x axis. since this function is not discontinuous anywhere along the x axis, then the domain is said to be all values of x.
Andrew
Derivative of a function
Waqar
right andrew ... this function is only discontinuous at 0
Roha
of sorry, I didn't realize he was taking about the function 1/x ...I thought he was referring to the function x^3-2x.
Andrew
yep...it's 1/x...!!!
Roha
true and cannot be apart of the domain that makes up the relation of the graph y = 1/x. The value of the denominator of the rational function can never be zero, because the result of the output value (range value of the graph when x =0) is undefined.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Therefore, when x = 0 the image of the rational function does not exist at this domain value, but exist at all other x values (domain) that makes the equation functional, and the graph drawable.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Roha are u A Student
Lutf
yes
Roha
What is the first fundermental theory of Calculus?
ZIMBA Reply
do u mean fundamental theorem ?
Roha
I want simple integral
aparna Reply
for MSc chemistry... simple formulas of integration
aparna
hello?
funny
how are you
funny
I don't understand integration
aparna
r u insane
aparna
integration is so simple not typical..
funny
tell me any questions about integration then i will solve.
funny
we use integration for whole values or for sum of values any there are some basic rule for integration..
funny
I just formulas
aparna
I just want formulas of integration
aparna
value of log ax cot-x cos-x
aparna
there are many formulas about integration
funny
more then one formula are exist about integration..
funny
so I want simple formulas Because I'm studying MSc chem...Nd have done bsc from bio...
aparna
I am M.sc physics now i am studying in m.phil
funny
so what can i do
aparna
I will send you basic formula for integration after two mint first of all i write then i will send you.
funny
send me your messenger id where i can send you formulas about integration because there is no option for image sending..
funny
integration f(X) dx this is basic formula of integration sign is not there you can look integration sign in methematics form... and f(X) my be any function any values
funny
you send me your any ID where i can send you information about integration
funny
send me SMS at this ID Adnan sathi Adnan sathi
funny
Hi
RIZWAN
I don't understand the formula
Adaeze Reply
who's formula
funny
which formula?
Roha
what is the advantages of mathematical economics
Mubarak
Practice Key Terms 4

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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