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The washer method

Some solids of revolution have cavities in the middle; they are not solid all the way to the axis of revolution. Sometimes, this is just a result of the way the region of revolution is shaped with respect to the axis of revolution. In other cases, cavities arise when the region of revolution is defined as the region between the graphs of two functions. A third way this can happen is when an axis of revolution other than the x -axis or y -axis is selected.

When the solid of revolution has a cavity in the middle, the slices used to approximate the volume are not disks, but washers (disks with holes in the center). For example, consider the region bounded above by the graph of the function f ( x ) = x and below by the graph of the function g ( x ) = 1 over the interval [ 1 , 4 ] . When this region is revolved around the x -axis, the result is a solid with a cavity in the middle, and the slices are washers. The graph of the function and a representative washer are shown in [link] (a) and (b). The region of revolution and the resulting solid are shown in [link] (c) and (d).

This figure has four graphs. The first graph is labeled “a” and has the two functions f(x)=squareroot(x) and g(x)=1 graphed in the first quadrant. f(x) is an increasing curve starting at the origin and g(x) is a horizontal line at y=1. The curves intersect at the ordered pair (1,1). In between the curves is a shaded rectangle with the bottom on g(x) and the top at f(x). The second graph labeled “b” is the same two curves as the first graph. The shaded rectangle between the curves from the first graph has been rotated around the x-axis to form an open disk or washer. The third graph labeled “a” has the same two curves as the first graph. There is a shaded region between the two curves between where they intersect and a line at x=4. The fourth graph is the same two curves as the first with the region from the third graph rotated around the x-axis forming a solid region with a hollow center. The hollow center is represented on the graph with broken horizontal lines at y=1 and y=-1.
(a) A thin rectangle in the region between two curves. (b) A representative disk formed by revolving the rectangle about the x -axis . (c) The region between the curves over the given interval. (d) The resulting solid of revolution.

The cross-sectional area, then, is the area of the outer circle less the area of the inner circle. In this case,

A ( x ) = π ( x ) 2 π ( 1 ) 2 = π ( x 1 ) .

Then the volume of the solid is

V = a b A ( x ) d x = 1 4 π ( x 1 ) d x = π [ x 2 2 x ] | 1 4 = 9 2 π units 3 .

Generalizing this process gives the washer method    .

Rule: the washer method

Suppose f ( x ) and g ( x ) are continuous, nonnegative functions such that f ( x ) g ( x ) over [ a , b ] . Let R denote the region bounded above by the graph of f ( x ) , below by the graph of g ( x ) , on the left by the line x = a , and on the right by the line x = b . Then, the volume of the solid of revolution formed by revolving R around the x -axis is given by

V = a b π [ ( f ( x ) ) 2 ( g ( x ) ) 2 ] d x .

Using the washer method

Find the volume of a solid of revolution formed by revolving the region bounded above by the graph of f ( x ) = x and below by the graph of g ( x ) = 1 / x over the interval [ 1 , 4 ] around the x -axis .

The graphs of the functions and the solid of revolution are shown in the following figure.

This figure has two graphs. The first graph is labeled “a” and has the two curves f(x)=x and g(x)=1/x. They are graphed only in the first quadrant. f(x) is a diagonal line starting at the origin and g(x) is a decreasing curve with the y-axis as a vertical asymptote and the x-axis as a horizontal asymptote. The graphs intersect at (1,1). There is a shaded region between the graphs, bounded to the right by a line at x=4. The second graph is the same two curves. There is a solid formed by rotating the shaded region from the first graph around the x-axis.
(a) The region between the graphs of the functions f ( x ) = x and g ( x ) = 1 / x over the interval [ 1 , 4 ] . (b) Revolving the region about the x -axis generates a solid of revolution with a cavity in the middle.

We have

V = a b π [ ( f ( x ) ) 2 ( g ( x ) ) 2 ] d x = π 1 4 [ x 2 ( 1 x ) 2 ] d x = π [ x 3 3 + 1 x ] | 1 4 = 81 π 4 units 3 .
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Find the volume of a solid of revolution formed by revolving the region bounded by the graphs of f ( x ) = x and g ( x ) = 1 / x over the interval [ 1 , 3 ] around the x -axis .

10 π 3 units 3

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As with the disk method, we can also apply the washer method to solids of revolution that result from revolving a region around the y -axis. In this case, the following rule applies.

Rule: the washer method for solids of revolution around the y -axis

Suppose u ( y ) and v ( y ) are continuous, nonnegative functions such that v ( y ) u ( y ) for y [ c , d ] . Let Q denote the region bounded on the right by the graph of u ( y ) , on the left by the graph of v ( y ) , below by the line y = c , and above by the line y = d . Then, the volume of the solid of revolution formed by revolving Q around the y -axis is given by

V = c d π [ ( u ( y ) ) 2 ( v ( y ) ) 2 ] d y .

Questions & Answers

Find the arc length of the graph of f(x) = In (sinx) on the interval [Π/4, Π/2].
mukul Reply
Sand falling freely from a lorry form a conical shape whose height is always equal to one-third the radius of the base. a. How fast is the volume increasing when the radius of the base is (1m) and increasing at the rate of 1/4cm/sec Pls help me solve
ade
show that lim f(x) + lim g(x)=m+l
BARNABAS Reply
list the basic elementary differentials
Chio Reply
Differentiation and integration
Okikiola Reply
yes
Damien
proper definition of derivative
Syed Reply
the maximum rate of change of one variable with respect to another variable
Amdad
terms of an AP is 1/v and the vth term is 1/u show that the sum of uv terms is 1/2(uv+1)
Inembo Reply
what is calculus?
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calculus is math that studies the change in math, such as the rate and distance,
Tamarcus
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what is limit of a function?
Geoffrey Reply
what is x and how x=9.1 take?
Pravin Reply
what is f(x)
Inembo Reply
the function at x
Marc
also known as the y value so I could say y=2x or f(x)= 2x same thing just using functional notation your next question is what is dependent and independent variables. I am Dyslexic but know math and which is which confuses me. but one can vary the x value while y depends on which x you use. also
Marc
up domain and range
Marc
enjoy your work and good luck
Marc
I actually wanted to ask another questions on sets if u dont mind please?
Inembo
I have so many questions on set and I really love dis app I never believed u would reply
Inembo
Hmm go ahead and ask you got me curious too much conversation here
Adri
am sorry for disturbing I really want to know math that's why *I want to know the meaning of those symbols in sets* e.g n,U,A', etc pls I want to know it and how to solve its problems
Inembo
and how can i solve a question like dis *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
next questions what do dy mean by (A' n B^c)^c'
Inembo
The sets help you to define the function. The function is like a magic box where you put inside stuff(numbers or sets) and you get out the stuff but in different shapes (forms).
Adri
I dont understand what you wanna say by (A' n B^c)^c'
Adri
(A' n B (rise to the power of c)) all rise to the power of c
Inembo
Aaaahh
Adri
Ok so the set is formed by vectors and not numbers
Adri
A vector of length n
Adri
But you can make a set out of matrixes as well
Adri
I I don't even understand sets I wat to know d meaning of all d symbolsnon sets
Inembo
Wait what's your math level?
Adri
High-school?
Adri
yes
Inembo
am having big problem understanding sets more than other math topics
Inembo
So f:R->R means that the function takes real numbers and provides real numer. For ex. If f(x) =2x this means if you give to your function a real number like 2,it gives you also a real number 2times2=4
Adri
pls answer this question *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
If you have f:R^n->R^n you give to your function a vector of length n like (a1,a2,...an) where all a1,.. an are reals and gives you also a vector of length n... I don't know if i answering your question. Otherwise on YouTube you havr many videos where they explain it in a simple way
Adri
I would say 24
Adri
Offer both
Adri
Sorry 20
Adri
Actually you have 40 - 4 =36 who offer maths or physics or both.
Adri
I know its 20 but how to prove it
Inembo
You have 32+24=56who offer courses
Adri
56-36=20 who give both courses... I would say that
Adri
solution: In a question involving sets and Venn diagram, the sum of the members of set A + set B - the joint members of both set A and B + the members that are not in sets A or B = the total members of the set. In symbolic form n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) - n (A and B) + n (A U B)'.
Mckenzie
In the case of sets A and B use the letters m and p to represent the sets and we have: n (M U P) = 40; n (M) = 24; n (P) = 32; n (M and P) = unknown; n (M U P)' = 4
Mckenzie
Now substitute the numerical values for the symbolic representation 40 = 24 + 32 - n(M and P) + 4 Now solve for the unknown using algebra: 40 = 24 + 32+ 4 - n(M and P) 40 = 60 - n(M and P) Add n(M and P), as well, subtract 40 from both sides of the equation to find the answer.
Mckenzie
40 - 40 + n(M and P) = 60 - 40 - n(M and P) + n(M and P) Solution: n(M and P) = 20
Mckenzie
thanks
Inembo
Simpler form: Add the sums of set M, set P and the complement of the union of sets M and P then subtract the number of students from the total.
Mckenzie
n(M and P) = (32 + 24 + 4) - 40 = 60 - 40 = 20
Mckenzie
how do i evaluate integral of x^1/2 In x
ayo Reply
first you simplify the given expression, which gives (x^2/2). Then you now integrate the above simplified expression which finally gives( lnx^2).
Ahmad
by using integration product formula
Roha
find derivative f(x)=1/x
Mul Reply
-1/x^2, use the chain rule
Andrew
f(x)=x^3-2x
Mul
what is domin in this question
noman
all real numbers . except zero
Roha
please try to guide me how?
Meher
what do u want to ask
Roha
?
Roha
the domain of the function is all real number excluding zero, because the rational function 1/x is a representation of a fractional equation (precisely inverse function). As in elementary mathematics the concept of dividing by zero is nonexistence, so zero will not make the fractional statement
Mckenzie
a function's answer/range should not be in the form of 1/0 and there should be no imaginary no. say square root of any negative no. (-1)^1/2
Roha
domain means everywhere along the x axis. since this function is not discontinuous anywhere along the x axis, then the domain is said to be all values of x.
Andrew
Derivative of a function
Waqar
right andrew ... this function is only discontinuous at 0
Roha
of sorry, I didn't realize he was taking about the function 1/x ...I thought he was referring to the function x^3-2x.
Andrew
yep...it's 1/x...!!!
Roha
true and cannot be apart of the domain that makes up the relation of the graph y = 1/x. The value of the denominator of the rational function can never be zero, because the result of the output value (range value of the graph when x =0) is undefined.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Therefore, when x = 0 the image of the rational function does not exist at this domain value, but exist at all other x values (domain) that makes the equation functional, and the graph drawable.
Mckenzie
👍
Roha
Roha are u A Student
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What is the first fundermental theory of Calculus?
ZIMBA Reply
do u mean fundamental theorem ?
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Practice Key Terms 5

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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