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[T] The concentration of hydrogen ions in a substance is denoted by [ H + ] , measured in moles per liter. The pH of a substance is defined by the logarithmic function pH = log [ H + ] . This function is used to measure the acidity of a substance. The pH of water is 7. A substance with a pH less than 7 is an acid, whereas one that has a pH of more than 7 is a base.

  1. Find the pH of the following substances. Round answers to one digit.
  2. Determine whether the substance is an acid or a base.
    1. Eggs: [ H + ] = 1.6 × 10 −8 mol/L
    2. Beer: [ H + ] = 3.16 × 10 −3 mol/L
    3. Tomato Juice: [ H + ] = 7.94 × 10 −5 mol/L

i. a. pH = 8 b. Base ii. a. pH = 3 b. Acid iii. a. pH = 4 b. Acid

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[T] Iodine-131 is a radioactive substance that decays according to the function Q ( t ) = Q 0 · e −0.08664 t , where Q 0 is the initial quantity of a sample of the substance and t is in days. Determine how long it takes (to the nearest day) for 95% of a quantity to decay.

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[T] According to the World Bank, at the end of 2013 ( t = 0 ) the U.S. population was 316 million and was increasing according to the following model:

P ( t ) = 316 e 0.0074 t ,

where P is measured in millions of people and t is measured in years after 2013.

  1. Based on this model, what will be the population of the United States in 2020?
  2. Determine when the U.S. population will be twice what it is in 2013.

a. ~ 333 million b. 94 years from 2013, or in 2107

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[T] The amount A accumulated after 1000 dollars is invested for t years at an interest rate of 4% is modeled by the function A ( t ) = 1000 ( 1.04 ) t .

  1. Find the amount accumulated after 5 years and 10 years.
  2. Determine how long it takes for the original investment to triple.
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[T] A bacterial colony grown in a lab is known to double in number in 12 hours. Suppose, initially, there are 1000 bacteria present.

  1. Use the exponential function Q = Q 0 e k t to determine the value k , which is the growth rate of the bacteria. Round to four decimal places.
  2. Determine approximately how long it takes for 200,000 bacteria to grow.

a. k 0.0578 b. 92 hours

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[T] The rabbit population on a game reserve doubles every 6 months. Suppose there were 120 rabbits initially.

  1. Use the exponential function P = P 0 a t to determine the growth rate constant a . Round to four decimal places.
  2. Use the function in part a. to determine approximately how long it takes for the rabbit population to reach 3500.
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[T] The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco had a magnitude of 8.3 on the Richter scale. At the same time, in Japan, an earthquake with magnitude 4.9 caused only minor damage. Approximately how much more energy was released by the San Francisco earthquake than by the Japanese earthquake?

The San Francisco earthquake had 10 3.4 or ~ 2512 times more energy than the Japan earthquake.

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Chapter review exercises

True or False ? Justify your answer with a proof or a counterexample.

A function is always one-to-one.

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f g = g f , assuming f and g are functions.


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A relation that passes the horizontal and vertical line tests is a one-to-one function.

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A relation passing the horizontal line test is a function.


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For the following problems, state the domain and range of the given functions:

f = x 2 + 2 x 3 , g = ln ( x 5 ) , h = 1 x + 4

Questions & Answers

what is a maximax
Chinye Reply
A maxima in a curve refers to the maximum point said curve. The maxima is a point where the gradient of the curve is equal to 0 (dy/dx = 0) and its second derivative value is a negative (d²y/dx² = -ve).
what is the limit of x^2+x when x approaches 0
Dike Reply
it is 0 because 0 squared Is 0
simply put the value of 0 in places of x.....
find derivatives 3√x²+√3x²
Care Reply
3 + 3=6
How to do basic integrals
dondi Reply
write something lmit
ram Reply
find the integral of tan tanxdx
Lateef Reply
-ln|cosx| + C
discuss continuity of x-[x] at [ _1 1]
Atshdr Reply
Given that u = tan–¹(y/x), show that d²u/dx² + d²u/dy²=0
Collince Reply
find the limiting value of 5n-3÷2n-7
Joy Reply
Use the first principal to solve the following questions 5x-1
Cecilia Reply
Ibrahim Reply
mode of (x+4) is equal to 10..graph it how?
Sunny Reply
what is domain in calculus
integrals of 1/6-6x-5x²
Namwandi Reply
derivative of (-x^3+1)%x^2
Misha Reply
oh sorry it's (-x^3+1)÷x^2
sorry I didn't understan A with that symbol
find the derivative of the following y=4^e5x y=Cos^2 y=x^inx , x>0 y= 1+x^2/1-x^2 y=Sin ^2 3x + Cos^2 3x please guys I need answer and solutions
Ga Reply
differentiate y=(3x-2)^2(2x^2+5) and simplify the result
y= (2x^2+5)(3x+9)^2
Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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