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Solve ln ( x 3 ) 4 ln ( x ) = 1 .

x = 1 e

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When evaluating a logarithmic function with a calculator, you may have noticed that the only options are log 10 or log, called the common logarithm , or ln , which is the natural logarithm. However, exponential functions and logarithm functions can be expressed in terms of any desired base b . If you need to use a calculator to evaluate an expression with a different base, you can apply the change-of-base formulas first. Using this change of base, we typically write a given exponential or logarithmic function in terms of the natural exponential and natural logarithmic functions.

Rule: change-of-base formulas

Let a > 0 , b > 0 , and a 1 , b 1 .

  1. a x = b x log b a for any real number x .
    If b = e , this equation reduces to a x = e x log e a = e x ln a .
  2. log a x = log b x log b a for any real number x > 0 .
    If b = e , this equation reduces to log a x = ln x ln a .

Proof

For the first change-of-base formula, we begin by making use of the power property of logarithmic functions. We know that for any base b > 0 , b 1 , log b ( a x ) = x log b a . Therefore,

b log b ( a x ) = b x log b a .

In addition, we know that b x and log b ( x ) are inverse functions. Therefore,

b log b ( a x ) = a x .

Combining these last two equalities, we conclude that a x = b x log b a .

To prove the second property, we show that

( log b a ) · ( log a x ) = log b x .

Let u = log b a , v = log a x , and w = log b x . We will show that u · v = w . By the definition of logarithmic functions, we know that b u = a , a v = x , and b w = x . From the previous equations, we see that

b u v = ( b u ) v = a v = x = b w .

Therefore, b u v = b w . Since exponential functions are one-to-one, we can conclude that u · v = w .

Changing bases

Use a calculating utility to evaluate log 3 7 with the change-of-base formula presented earlier.

Use the second equation with a = 3 and e = 3 :

log 3 7 = ln 7 ln 3 1.77124 .

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Use the change-of-base formula and a calculating utility to evaluate log 4 6 .

1.29248

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Chapter opener: the richter scale for earthquakes

A photograph of an earthquake fault.
(credit: modification of work by Robb Hannawacker, NPS)

In 1935, Charles Richter developed a scale (now known as the Richter scale ) to measure the magnitude of an earthquake . The scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, and it can be described as follows: Consider one earthquake with magnitude R 1 on the Richter scale and a second earthquake with magnitude R 2 on the Richter scale. Suppose R 1 > R 2 , which means the earthquake of magnitude R 1 is stronger, but how much stronger is it than the other earthquake? A way of measuring the intensity of an earthquake is by using a seismograph to measure the amplitude of the earthquake waves. If A 1 is the amplitude measured for the first earthquake and A 2 is the amplitude measured for the second earthquake, then the amplitudes and magnitudes of the two earthquakes satisfy the following equation:

R 1 R 2 = log 10 ( A 1 A 2 ) .

Consider an earthquake that measures 8 on the Richter scale and an earthquake that measures 7 on the Richter scale. Then,

8 7 = log 10 ( A 1 A 2 ) .

Therefore,

log 10 ( A 1 A 2 ) = 1 ,

which implies A 1 / A 2 = 10 or A 1 = 10 A 2 . Since A 1 is 10 times the size of A 2 , we say that the first earthquake is 10 times as intense as the second earthquake. On the other hand, if one earthquake measures 8 on the Richter scale and another measures 6, then the relative intensity of the two earthquakes satisfies the equation

log 10 ( A 1 A 2 ) = 8 6 = 2 .

Therefore, A 1 = 100 A 2 . That is, the first earthquake is 100 times more intense than the second earthquake.

How can we use logarithmic functions to compare the relative severity of the magnitude 9 earthquake in Japan in 2011 with the magnitude 7.3 earthquake in Haiti in 2010?

To compare the Japan and Haiti earthquakes, we can use an equation presented earlier:

9 7.3 = log 10 ( A 1 A 2 ) .

Therefore, A 1 / A 2 = 10 1.7 , and we conclude that the earthquake in Japan was approximately 50 times more intense than the earthquake in Haiti.

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Questions & Answers

find the domain and range of f(x)= 4x-7/x²-6x+8
Nick Reply
find the range of f(x)=(x+1)(x+4)
Jane Reply
-1, -4
Marcia
That's domain. The range is [-9/4,+infinity)
Jacob
If you're using calculus to find the range, you have to find the extrema through the first derivative test and then substitute the x-value for the extrema back into the original equation.
Jacob
Good morning,,, how are you
Harrieta Reply
d/dx{1/y - lny + X^3.Y^5}
mogomotsi Reply
How to identify domain and range
Umar Reply
hello
Akpevwe
He,,
Harrieta
hi
Dr
hello
velocity
I only talk to girls
Dr
women are smart then guys
Dr
Smarter
Adri
sorry
Dr
hi adri ana
Dr
:(
Shun
was up
Dr
hello
Adarsh
is it chatting app?.. I do not see any calculus here. lol
Adarsh
Find the arc length of the graph of f(x) = In (sinx) on the interval [Π/4, Π/2].
mukul Reply
Sand falling freely from a lorry form a conical shape whose height is always equal to one-third the radius of the base. a. How fast is the volume increasing when the radius of the base is (1m) and increasing at the rate of 1/4cm/sec Pls help me solve
ade
show that lim f(x) + lim g(x)=m+l
BARNABAS Reply
list the basic elementary differentials
Chio Reply
Differentiation and integration
Okikiola Reply
yes
Damien
proper definition of derivative
Syed Reply
the maximum rate of change of one variable with respect to another variable
Amdad
terms of an AP is 1/v and the vth term is 1/u show that the sum of uv terms is 1/2(uv+1)
Inembo Reply
what is calculus?
BISWAJIT Reply
calculus is math that studies the change in math, such as the rate and distance,
Tamarcus
what are the topics in calculus
Augustine
what is limit of a function?
Geoffrey Reply
what is x and how x=9.1 take?
Pravin Reply
what is f(x)
Inembo Reply
the function at x
Marc
also known as the y value so I could say y=2x or f(x)= 2x same thing just using functional notation your next question is what is dependent and independent variables. I am Dyslexic but know math and which is which confuses me. but one can vary the x value while y depends on which x you use. also
Marc
up domain and range
Marc
enjoy your work and good luck
Marc
I actually wanted to ask another questions on sets if u dont mind please?
Inembo
I have so many questions on set and I really love dis app I never believed u would reply
Inembo
Hmm go ahead and ask you got me curious too much conversation here
Adri
am sorry for disturbing I really want to know math that's why *I want to know the meaning of those symbols in sets* e.g n,U,A', etc pls I want to know it and how to solve its problems
Inembo
and how can i solve a question like dis *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
next questions what do dy mean by (A' n B^c)^c'
Inembo
The sets help you to define the function. The function is like a magic box where you put inside stuff(numbers or sets) and you get out the stuff but in different shapes (forms).
Adri
I dont understand what you wanna say by (A' n B^c)^c'
Adri
(A' n B (rise to the power of c)) all rise to the power of c
Inembo
Aaaahh
Adri
Ok so the set is formed by vectors and not numbers
Adri
A vector of length n
Adri
But you can make a set out of matrixes as well
Adri
I I don't even understand sets I wat to know d meaning of all d symbolsnon sets
Inembo
Wait what's your math level?
Adri
High-school?
Adri
yes
Inembo
am having big problem understanding sets more than other math topics
Inembo
So f:R->R means that the function takes real numbers and provides real numer. For ex. If f(x) =2x this means if you give to your function a real number like 2,it gives you also a real number 2times2=4
Adri
pls answer this question *in a group of 40 students, 32 offer maths and 24 offer physics and 4 offer neither maths nor physics , how many offer both maths and physics*
Inembo
If you have f:R^n->R^n you give to your function a vector of length n like (a1,a2,...an) where all a1,.. an are reals and gives you also a vector of length n... I don't know if i answering your question. Otherwise on YouTube you havr many videos where they explain it in a simple way
Adri
I would say 24
Adri
Offer both
Adri
Sorry 20
Adri
Actually you have 40 - 4 =36 who offer maths or physics or both.
Adri
I know its 20 but how to prove it
Inembo
You have 32+24=56who offer courses
Adri
56-36=20 who give both courses... I would say that
Adri
solution: In a question involving sets and Venn diagram, the sum of the members of set A + set B - the joint members of both set A and B + the members that are not in sets A or B = the total members of the set. In symbolic form n(A U B) = n(A) + n (B) - n (A and B) + n (A U B)'.
Mckenzie
In the case of sets A and B use the letters m and p to represent the sets and we have: n (M U P) = 40; n (M) = 24; n (P) = 32; n (M and P) = unknown; n (M U P)' = 4
Mckenzie
Now substitute the numerical values for the symbolic representation 40 = 24 + 32 - n(M and P) + 4 Now solve for the unknown using algebra: 40 = 24 + 32+ 4 - n(M and P) 40 = 60 - n(M and P) Add n(M and P), as well, subtract 40 from both sides of the equation to find the answer.
Mckenzie
40 - 40 + n(M and P) = 60 - 40 - n(M and P) + n(M and P) Solution: n(M and P) = 20
Mckenzie
thanks
Inembo
Simpler form: Add the sums of set M, set P and the complement of the union of sets M and P then subtract the number of students from the total.
Mckenzie
n(M and P) = (32 + 24 + 4) - 40 = 60 - 40 = 20
Mckenzie
Practice Key Terms 7

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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