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  • Use functional notation to evaluate a function.
  • Determine the domain and range of a function.
  • Draw the graph of a function.
  • Find the zeros of a function.
  • Recognize a function from a table of values.
  • Make new functions from two or more given functions.
  • Describe the symmetry properties of a function.

In this section, we provide a formal definition of a function and examine several ways in which functions are represented—namely, through tables, formulas, and graphs. We study formal notation and terms related to functions. We also define composition of functions and symmetry properties. Most of this material will be a review for you, but it serves as a handy reference to remind you of some of the algebraic techniques useful for working with functions.


Given two sets A and B , a set with elements that are ordered pairs ( x , y ) , where x is an element of A and y is an element of B , is a relation from A to B . A relation from A to B defines a relationship between those two sets. A function is a special type of relation in which each element of the first set is related to exactly one element of the second set. The element of the first set is called the input ; the element of the second set is called the output . Functions are used all the time in mathematics to describe relationships between two sets. For any function, when we know the input, the output is determined, so we say that the output is a function of the input. For example, the area of a square is determined by its side length, so we say that the area (the output) is a function of its side length (the input). The velocity of a ball thrown in the air can be described as a function of the amount of time the ball is in the air. The cost of mailing a package is a function of the weight of the package. Since functions have so many uses, it is important to have precise definitions and terminology to study them.


A function     f consists of a set of inputs, a set of outputs, and a rule for assigning each input to exactly one output. The set of inputs is called the domain    of the function. The set of outputs is called the range    of the function.

For example, consider the function f , where the domain is the set of all real numbers and the rule is to square the input. Then, the input x = 3 is assigned to the output 3 2 = 9 . Since every nonnegative real number has a real-value square root, every nonnegative number is an element of the range of this function. Since there is no real number with a square that is negative, the negative real numbers are not elements of the range. We conclude that the range is the set of nonnegative real numbers.

For a general function f with domain D , we often use x to denote the input and y to denote the output associated with x . When doing so, we refer to x as the independent variable    and y as the dependent variable    , because it depends on x . Using function notation, we write y = f ( x ) , and we read this equation as y equals f of x . For the squaring function described earlier, we write f ( x ) = x 2 .

The concept of a function can be visualized using [link] , [link] , and [link] .

An image with three items. The first item is text that reads “Input, x”. An arrow points from the first item to the second item, which is a box with the label “function”. An arrow points from the second item to the third item, which is text that reads “Output, f(x)”.
A function can be visualized as an input/output device.

Questions & Answers

f(x) = x-2 g(x) = 3x + 5 fog(x)? f(x)/g(x)
Naufal Reply
fog(x)= f(g(x)) = x-2 = 3x+5-2 = 3x+3 f(x)/g(x)= x-2/3x+5
pweding paturo nsa calculus?
how to use fundamental theorem to solve exponential
find the bounded area of the parabola y^2=4x and y=16x
Omar Reply
what is absolute value means?
Geo Reply
Chicken nuggets
🐔🦃 nuggets
(mathematics) For a complex number a+bi, the principal square root of the sum of the squares of its real and imaginary parts, √a2+b2 . Denoted by | |. The absolute value |x| of a real number x is √x2 , which is equal to x if x is non-negative, and −x if x is negative.
find integration of loge x
Game Reply
find the volume of a solid about the y-axis, x=0, x=1, y=0, y=7+x^3
Godwin Reply
how does this work
Brad Reply
Can calculus give the answers as same as other methods give in basic classes while solving the numericals?
Cosmos Reply
log tan (x/4+x/2)
please answer
y=(x^2 + 3x).(eipix)
is this a answer
A Function F(X)=Sinx+cosx is odd or even?
f(x)=1/1+x^2 |=[-3,1]
Yuliana Reply
apa itu?
determine the area of the region enclosed by x²+y=1,2x-y+4=0
Gerald Reply
Hi too
hello please anyone with calculus PDF should share
Which kind of pdf do you want bro?
can I get calculus in pdf
explain for me
okay I have such documents
please share it
How to use it to slove fraction
Tricia Reply
Hello please can someone tell me the meaning of this group all about, yes I know is calculus group but yet nothing is showing up
You have downloaded the aplication Calculus Volume 1, tackling about lessons for (mostly) college freshmen, Calculus 1: Differential, and this group I think aims to let concerns and questions from students who want to clarify something about the subject. Well, this is what I guess so.
Im not in college but this will still help
how en where can u apply it
how can we scatch a parabola graph
Dever Reply
how can I solve differentiation?
Sir Reply
with the help of different formulas and Rules. we use formulas according to given condition or according to questions
For example any questions...
v=(x,y) وu=(x,y ) ∂u/∂x* ∂x/∂u +∂v/∂x*∂x/∂v=1
log tan (x/4+x/2)
what is the procedures in solving number 1?
Vier Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Calculus volume 1. OpenStax CNX. Feb 05, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11964/1.2
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