
1.1 Definitions of statistics, probability, and key terms Read Online
1.2 Data, sampling, and variation in data and sampling Read Online
1.3 Frequency, frequency tables, and levels of measurement Read Online
1.4 Experimental design and ethics Read Online
By the end of this chapter, the student should be able to:
You are probably asking yourself the question, "When and where will I use statistics?" If you read any newspaper, watch television, or use the Internet, you will see statistical information. There are statistics about crime, sports, education, politics, and real estate. Typically, when you read a newspaper article or watch a television news program, you are given sample information. With this information, you may make a decision about the correctness of a statement, claim, or "fact." Statistical methods can help you make the "best educated guess."
Since you will undoubtedly be given statistical information at some point in your life, you need to know some techniques for analyzing the information thoughtfully. Think about buying a house or managing a budget. Think about your chosen profession. The fields of economics, business, psychology, education, biology, law, computer science, police science, and early childhood development require at least one course in statistics.
Included in this chapter are the basic ideas and words of probability and statistics. You will soon understand that statistics and probability work together. You will also learn how data are gathered and what "good" data can be distinguished from "bad."
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Question: A national shoe company noticed that sales of its new running shoe are below what was expected for the month of December. To better understand the trends in the sales data collected for each day in December, which option below would NOT be a useful way to present the data to company executives?
Choices:
Compile the sales data in a spreadsheet, and construct a table with each day's sales from highest to lowest displaying which days were the strongest days for sales.
Compile the sales data in a spreadsheet, and construct a histogram showing the frequency of sales over the weeks of the December shopping season.
Compile the sales data in a spreadsheet, and construct a table with each day's sales from this December and the previous December to compare the difference.
Compile the sales data in a spreadsheet, and construct a table listing the reasons you think sales were lower than expected.
Question: In a random sample of cell phone users, a leading marketing company compiled a count of total minutes per month, per user, over a three month period. With the data organized in a spreadsheet, which of the following is the best way to identify the mode number of minutes among the sample of users?
Choices:
Sort the data in a single column from highest to lowest, and identify the value that appears most often.
Sort the data in a single column from highest to lowest, and find the average value by using the spreadsheet's averaging function.
Sort the data in two columns, subtract the difference between each row and column, and then add the total by using the spreadsheet's summary function.
Sort the data in three columns, and add the three month totals for each user by using the spreadsheet's summary function.
Question: In a study conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, a number of variables were gathered on the characteristics of student athletes across the United States. In the report publicizing the major findings, certain variables for each student athlete are grouped together. Which grouping below provides the best example of quantitative information?
Choices:
The grade point average, the total credit hours in the most recent semester, and the number of classes missed as a result of athletics in the most recent semester for each student athlete
The height, weight, and ethnicity of each student athlete
The chosen major of the student athlete, whether the student had missed class as a result of athletics in the most recent semester, and whether the student had sought help from the instructor outside of regular class time in the most recent semester
The sport of each student athlete, the number of practice hours per week for each athlete, and number of days the athlete spent traveling during the most recent semester
Question: A Fortune 500 company asked its customers to take a voluntary survey each time a customer made an online purchase. The company gathered over 5,000 responses, which included both quantitative and qualitative information. Which of the following best demonstrates the difference between a quantitative variable and qualitative variable?
Choices:
Part 1 of the survey asked the customer for information on his or her total years of schooling, and Part 2 asks for his or her current level of income in dollars.
Part 1 of the survey asked the customer for information on whether he or she completed college, and Part 2 asked for whether he or she had lost a job in the last five years.
Part 1 of the survey asked the customer for information on his or her total years of schooling, and Part 2 asked if he or she own a car.
Part 1 of the survey asked the customer for information on his or her total years of schooling, and Part 2 asked how many members are in his or her household.
Question: Complete the following sentence. In a histogram, the area of the bin is:
Choices:
proportional to the interquartile range of the data.
proportional to the height of the scaled yaxis.
proportional to the total number of observations in the histogram.
proportional to the relative frequency of the observations in the bin.
Question: A major coffee company decides to offer its customers a cup of coffee brewed from an extravagant process in half of its largecity retail locations. The special cup of coffee costs $3.50 more than the basic cup of coffee the company offers. Which of the following is NOT an example of how the coffee company could use business statistics to understand the value of introducing the new, and very expensive, cup of coffee to its customers?
Choices:
So the company can compare the effect of revenues for a store from the new expensive brew versus stores where the brew is not offered
So the company can measure if the amount of regular (cheaper) cups of coffee is purchased less in favor of the more expensive cup
So the company can gauge whether the new coffee improves the ambience of the instore seating area
So the company can gauge whether on average customers who order the more expensive cup also tend to order more or less food along with their coffee
Question: In a study conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association, a number of variables were gathered on the characteristics of student athletes across the United States. In the study, specific information on each student athlete is collected. Which information best describes an ordinal variable?
Choices:
If a student athlete is a humanities major, business major, or a science major
If a student athlete is a freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior with respect to athletic eligibility
If a student athlete is or has been ranked nationally in his or her respective sport
If the student athlete is on full scholarship
Question: A high school math teacher offers an afterschool tutoring session open to all students. To measure student demand for the session, she keeps track of the total number of students attending each week. In the last five weeks, the total attendance was 6, 3, 0, 4, and 2, respectively. Calculate the variance of attendance in the last five weeks. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
Choices:
5.0
2.2
4.0
2.5
Question: A local restaurant keeps statistics on the average number of meals ordered for each table in the restaurant during dinner hours. In the last hour, four tables ordered and were served 2, 4, 6, and 8 meals, respectively. Calculate the standard deviation of the number of meals ordered in the last hour. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
Choices:
2.6
6.7
2.2
5.0
Question: A small firm awards points to its employees for working overtime and subtracts points for unapproved absences from work (the points are then used in annual performance reports). A group of five employees has points of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. To get a sense of the average size of the total points awarded to the group of employees, calculate the root mean square of those five numbers. Round your answer to the nearest tenth.
Choices:
1
3.2
11.2
45.0
Question: Based on the histogram, what is the range of the data?
Choices:
10
30
60
70