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Blood pressure

This photo shows a nurse taking a woman’s blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. The nurse is pumping the cuff with her right hand and holding a stethoscope on the patient’s arm with her left hand.
A proficiency in anatomy and physiology is fundamental to any career in the health professions. (credit: Bryan Mason/flickr)

Chapter objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Distinguish between anatomy and physiology, and identify several branches of each
  • Describe the structure of the body, from simplest to most complex, in terms of the six levels of organization
  • Identify the functional characteristics of human life
  • Identify the four requirements for human survival
  • Define homeostasis and explain its importance to normal human functioning
  • Use appropriate anatomical terminology to identify key body structures, body regions, and directions in the body
  • Compare and contrast at least four medical imagining techniques in terms of their function and use in medicine

Though you may approach a course in anatomy and physiology strictly as a requirement for your field of study, the knowledge you gain in this course will serve you well in many aspects of your life. An understanding of anatomy and physiology is not only fundamental to any career in the health professions, but it can also benefit your own health. Familiarity with the human body can help you make healthful choices and prompt you to take appropriate action when signs of illness arise. Your knowledge in this field will help you understand news about nutrition, medications, medical devices, and procedures and help you understand genetic or infectious diseases. At some point, everyone will have a problem with some aspect of his or her body and your knowledge can help you to be a better parent, spouse, partner, friend, colleague, or caregiver.

This chapter begins with an overview of anatomy and physiology and a preview of the body regions and functions. It then covers the characteristics of life and how the body works to maintain stable conditions. It introduces a set of standard terms for body structures and for planes and positions in the body that will serve as a foundation for more comprehensive information covered later in the text. It ends with examples of medical imaging used to see inside the living body.

Exam PDF eBook: 
BOD Urinary Tract quiz
Download BOD Exam PDF eBook
15 Pages
2014
English US
Educational Materials



Sample Questions from the BOD Urinary Tract quiz Exam

Question: Urostasis is the incomplete emptying of the bladder. True /False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Kidney responds to injury by increasing functional parenchyma by hyperplasia ( increase in cell numbers). True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: 75% of kidney function can be lost before failure occurs.

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which of the following is complication of lower urinary tract neoplasia?

Choices:

Urostasis

Pyelonephritis

Metastasis

Obstruction of outflow

All of the above

Question: Nephroblastoma is a tumor of....

Choices:

Embryological origin

Nephron origin

Interstitial tubule origin

Metastatic origin

Epithelial origin

Question: Nephrons have high regeneration capacity. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Uremia is most indicative of end stage renal disease. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which is true regarding acute cystitis?

Choices:

Females get acute cystitis more often than males because females have shorter urethra.

Systemic infections cause acute cystitis more than ascending infections.

Acute cystitis is only caused by bacterial infections.

Acute cystitis is caused by altered host condition not the virulence of organism.

Diabetes mellitus patients are immune to acute cystitis infections.

Question: Which of the following statements is FALSE?

Choices:

Ethylene glycol toxicity can cause anuria/ intrarenal obstruct of urine flow.

Glomerular amyloidosis can be secondary to pyometra in dogs.

NSAIDS can cause ischemic renal failure.

Azotemia is a syndrome associated with multisystemic lesions and clinical signs because of renal failure.

Rib calcification is the body's way of maintaining the off balance of Ca/P metabolism due to uremia.

Question: Feline Urinary Tract Disease (FLUD) main complication is hydronephrosos. True/False

Choices:

True

False

Question: Which is False regarding pyelonephritis?

Choices:

always involves an infectious agent

results in tubulointerstitial nephritis

retrograde spread of bacteria to the pelvis is the most common cause

chronic pyelonephritis can be bilateral causing renal failure

is an acute disease from UTI's that is self limiting

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