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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Discuss the fundamental difference between anaerobic cellular respiration and fermentation
  • Describe the type of fermentation that readily occurs in animal cells and the conditions that initiate that fermentation

In aerobic respiration, the final electron acceptor is an oxygen molecule, O 2 . If aerobic respiration occurs, then ATP will be produced using the energy of the high-energy electrons carried by NADH or FADH 2 to the electron transport chain. If aerobic respiration does not occur, NADH must be reoxidized to NAD + for reuse as an electron carrier for glycolysis to continue. How is this done? Some living systems use an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. Processes that use an organic molecule to regenerate NAD + from NADH are collectively referred to as fermentation    . In contrast, some living systems use an inorganic molecule (other than oxygen) as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD + ; both methods are anaerobic (do not require oxygen) to achieve NAD + regeneration and enable organisms to convert energy for their use in the absence of oxygen.

Lactic acid fermentation

The fermentation method used by animals and some bacteria like those in yogurt is lactic acid fermentation ( [link] ). This occurs routinely in mammalian red blood cells and in skeletal muscle that has insufficient oxygen supply to allow aerobic respiration to continue (that is, in muscles used to the point of fatigue). In muscles, lactic acid produced by fermentation must be removed by the blood circulation and brought to the liver for further metabolism. The chemical reaction of lactic acid fermentation is the following:

Pyruvic acid  + NADH lactic acid + NAD +

The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is lactate dehydrogenase. The reaction can proceed in either direction, but the left-to-right reaction is inhibited by acidic conditions. This lactic acid build-up causes muscle stiffness and fatigue. Once the lactic acid has been removed from the muscle and is circulated to the liver, it can be converted back to pyruvic acid and further catabolized for energy.

Art connection

A graphic shows glucose undergoing glycolysis to become two pyruvate molecules, which then undergo fermentation to become two lactate molecules. During glycolysis, two NAD+ are converted into two high-energy NADH molecules, but during fermentation, these two NADH molecules are reoxidized to become two NAD+ again. NAD+ can then be used in glycolysis.
Lactic acid fermentation is common in muscles that have become exhausted by use.

Tremetol, a metabolic poison found in white snake root plant, prevents the metabolism of lactate. When cows eat this plant, Tremetol is concentrated in the milk. Humans who consume the milk become ill. Symptoms of this disease, which include vomiting, abdominal pain, and tremors, become worse after exercise. Why do you think this is the case?

Alcohol fermentation

Another familiar fermentation process is alcohol fermentation ( [link] ), which produces ethanol, an alcohol. The alcohol fermentation reaction is the following:

Graphic showing the alcohol fermentation reaction in an equation.
The reaction resulting in alcohol fermentation is shown.

In the first reaction, a carboxyl group is removed from pyruvic acid, releasing carbon dioxide as a gas. The loss of carbon dioxide reduces the molecule by one carbon atom, making acetaldehyde. The second reaction removes an electron from NADH, forming NAD + and producing ethanol from the acetaldehyde, which accepts the electron. The fermentation of pyruvic acid by yeast produces the ethanol found in alcoholic beverages ( [link] ). If the carbon dioxide produced by the reaction is not vented from the fermentation chamber, for example in beer and sparkling wines, it remains dissolved in the medium until the pressure is released. Ethanol above 12 percent is toxic to yeast, so natural levels of alcohol in wine occur at a maximum of 12 percent.

This photo shows large, silver-colored, cylindrical fermentation tanks.
Fermentation of grape juice to make wine produces CO 2 as a byproduct. Fermentation tanks have valves so that pressure inside the tanks can be released.

Anaerobic cellular respiration

Certain prokaryotes, including some species of bacteria and Archaea, use anaerobic respiration. For example, the group of Archaea called methanogens reduces carbon dioxide to methane to oxidize NADH. These microorganisms are found in soil and in the digestive tracts of ruminants, such as cows and sheep. Similarly, sulfate-reducing bacteria and Archaea, most of which are anaerobic ( [link] ), reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide to regenerate NAD + from NADH.

This photo shows a bloom of green bacteria in water.
The green color seen in these coastal waters is from an eruption of hydrogen sulfide. Anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacteria release hydrogen sulfide gas as they decompose algae in the water. (credit: NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC)

Concept in action

Visit this site to see anaerobic cellular respiration in action.

Other fermentation methods occur in bacteria. Many prokaryotes are facultatively anaerobic. This means that they can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation, depending on the availability of oxygen. Certain prokaryotes, like Clostridia bacteria, are obligate anaerobes. Obligate anaerobes live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen. Oxygen is a poison to these microorganisms and kills them upon exposure. It should be noted that all forms of fermentation, except lactic acid fermentation, produce gas. The production of particular types of gas is used as an indicator of the fermentation of specific carbohydrates, which plays a role in the laboratory identification of the bacteria. The various methods of fermentation are used by different organisms to ensure an adequate supply of NAD + for the sixth step in glycolysis. Without these pathways, that step would not occur, and no ATP would be harvested from the breakdown of glucose.

Section summary

If NADH cannot be metabolized through aerobic respiration, another electron acceptor is used. Most organisms will use some form of fermentation to accomplish the regeneration of NAD + , ensuring the continuation of glycolysis. The regeneration of NAD + in fermentation is not accompanied by ATP production; therefore, the potential for NADH to produce ATP using an electron transport chain is not utilized.

Art connections

[link] Tremetol, a metabolic poison found in white snake root plant, prevents the metabolism of lactate. When cows eat this plant, Tremetol is concentrated in the milk. Humans who consume the milk become ill. Symptoms of this disease, which include vomiting, abdominal pain, and tremors, become worse after exercise. Why do you think this is the case?

[link] The illness is caused by lactic acid build-up. Lactic acid levels rise after exercise, making the symptoms worse. Milk sickness is rare today, but was common in the Midwestern United States in the early 1800s.

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Questions & Answers

what are the characteristics of living things
Ruth Reply
Movement Respiration Nutrition/Feeding Irritability/Sensitivity Growth Excretion Reproduction Deat/Life span
What makes children from the same father and mother sometimes don't look alike?
identification of problems
Nana Reply
what happens in the process of raising the human arms
what is biology
Brandi Reply
first step in scientific method
In an investigation the pancreatic duct of a mammal was blocked.It was found that the blood sugar regulation remained normal while food digestion was impaired.Explain
Mac Reply
To begin with, obstruction of pancreatic duct will alter the blood sugar level as the juices responsible for glucose regulation will be rendered inconsequential. This will in turn affect the rate of digestion and absorbtion of digested food substances by the Villus .
characteristics of algae
Algae are eukaryotic organisms. Algae do not have roots and stems. Algae have chlorophyll and helps in carrying out photosynthesis.
Cell wall is the rigid layer enclosed by membranes of plants and prokayortic cell, it maintains the shape of the cell and serve as a protective barrier.
chizoba Reply
ECOLOGY: is a branch of biology that studies the interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment, which includes both biotic and abiotic components. 
via nutrient cycles and energy flows. For instance, the energy from the sun is captured by plants through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a biological process through which plants manufacture their own food with the aid of light from the sun and frc sources (e.g. cabon dioxide and water)
What is cell wall
Taiwo Reply
cell wall is the outemost rigid covering of the plants ,that provides protection to the plants.
what is ecology, ecosystem?
Nkeng Reply
what is digestive system
Lucky Reply
digestive system is the human syman system that icludes esopuges stomach o braking down of food in to useful substance to our body
definition of biology basics
Ritu Reply
the potential energy of a molecule can be inquired by their number of?
Jesus Reply
what is the full meaning of RNA
Ayo Reply
ribose nucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid
Ribo Nucleic Acid
ribonucleic acid
discuss, describe at least three (3) methods that could be used to improve photosynthesis..
Marvel Reply
Improve the efficiency with which plants capture light Improve the efficiency by which plants turn light into energy The smart canopy concept develop crop planting schemes that increase the penetration of sunlight into lower-level leaves.
what is osmosis
Aon Reply
movement of water molecule from higher to lower concentration through a semipereable membrene.
what of in the case of solute
osmosis is the movement of molecules from higher concentration region to lower concentration region through semi-permeable membrane.
in case of solute means that water moves from the region with lower solutes to the region with higher solute. so it is vice versa to water.
osmosis is the movement of water molecule from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration through a semi permeable membrane
what are the hydrophilic and hydrophobic region of the plasma membrane?
Samuel Reply
hydrophilic in other word it called water loving and hydrophobic region other word is region that does not contact with water in the plasma membrane.
the phospholipids

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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