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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • List the structures that make up the respiratory system
  • Describe how the respiratory system processes oxygen and CO 2
  • Compare and contrast the functions of upper respiratory tract with the lower respiratory tract

The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing ( [link] ).

Major respiratory structures

This figure shows the upper half of the human body. The major organs in the respiratory system are labeled.
The major respiratory structures span the nasal cavity to the diaphragm.

Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone. The conducting zone    of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone    .

Conducting zone

The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air. Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well. The epithelium of the nasal passages, for example, is essential to sensing odors, and the bronchial epithelium that lines the lungs can metabolize some airborne carcinogens.

The nose and its adjacent structures

The major entrance and exit for the respiratory system is through the nose. When discussing the nose, it is helpful to divide it into two major sections: the external nose, and the nasal cavity or internal nose.

The external nose    consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions ( [link] ). The root    is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows. The bridge    is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose. The dorsum nasi    is the length of the nose. The apex    is the tip of the nose. On either side of the apex, the nostrils are formed by the alae (singular = ala). An ala    is a cartilaginous structure that forms the lateral side of each naris    (plural = nares), or nostril opening. The philtrum    is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.

Nose

This figure shows the human nose. The top left panel shows the front view, and the top right panel shows the side view. The bottom panel shows the cartilaginous components of the nose.
This illustration shows features of the external nose (top) and skeletal features of the nose (bottom).

Underneath the thin skin of the nose are its skeletal features (see [link] , lower illustration). While the root and bridge of the nose consist of bone, the protruding portion of the nose is composed of cartilage. As a result, when looking at a skull, the nose is missing. The nasal bone    is one of a pair of bones that lies under the root and bridge of the nose. The nasal bone articulates superiorly with the frontal bone and laterally with the maxillary bones. Septal cartilage is flexible hyaline cartilage connected to the nasal bone, forming the dorsum nasi. The alar cartilage    consists of the apex of the nose; it surrounds the naris.

Questions & Answers

what are simple epithelial tissues
Ushie Reply
what is platelets
Lilian Reply
platelet is also known as thrombocyte.thrombo means clot.it is a formed element of blood formed from fragment of megakaryocyte surrounded by plasma membrane in the redbone marow
Adeyemo
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namrata Reply
it is an infection due to less or no secretion of ADH characterized by excretion of dilute urine
Meshack
Infection? I don't think any form of diabetes, whether it's mellitus or insipidus, is caused by an infection.
Matias
ya
Akanyijuka
it is the disorder of salt & water metabolism
Emma
diabetes inspidus is a condition were the liver can't produce insulin to convert the excess sugar to glycogen.
mangs
sorry that is for diabetes mellitus
mangs
what is septal cartilage
Arthur Reply
I don't understand please
Esther Reply
hey
Austine
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Austine
Evening
Esther
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Melissa
evening
Vitus
hi
Rodgers
good morning
Aurelia
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Helsa
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Aurelia
Philippines
Helsa
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Aurelia
Hello
Amos
why
Sami
wat
Rodgers
what's that
Gift
what's the medulla?
alhussiney Reply
The medulla oblongata or simply medulla is a long stem-like structure which makes up the lower part of the brainstem. It is anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum
Ludmila
define bone in simple terms
Mhoses Reply
bones are made up by collagen and calcium phosphate
Aurelia
yes
Confidence
Bones are the hard large calcareous connective tissue of which the adult skeleton of most vertebrates is chiefly composed
Olalekan
Bone is the substance that forms skeleton
Frances
good morning
Mrinal
Skelton muscles is any disorder of calcium
Mrinal
Bones protect the various organs of the body
Celina
Bone is a hard strong and durable type of connective tissue
Bkv
bone is a hard, calcareous connective tissue which gives structural support to the body and helpless in its locomotion!
Divya
It also is the main site for synthesis of the RBCs
Divya
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Mhoses
A diagram of epithelial tissue
Emmanuel Reply
What does the urinary regulate blood pressure
Jennifer Reply
functions of melatonin
marion Reply
d. inversely proportional
John Reply
Airway resistance in the human lung is? a. Greatest in the generation of distal bronchioles in healthy people because these airways have the smallest radii b. Not increased during a forced expiration in a healthy subject c. Decreased when breathing through the mouth d. Inversely proportional
Maryam Reply
1. Chemical level 2. Cellular level 3.Tissue level 4. Organ level 5.Organ system level 5.Organismal level
Jamela Reply
d
HMD
High
HMD
hlw
Maryam
------is not a content of femoral canal? a. Fatty tissue b. Femoral nerve c. Lymph vessels d. Lymph node
Maryam
a
Alhassan
why there is bleeding in menstruation?
KUHELI Reply
menopause
Vasu
no
KUHELI
no one ready to help me
Maryam
skin
The following hormones increase the blood glucose level except_____________? a. Parathormone b. Growth Hormone c. Epinephrine d. Thyroxine
Maryam
c.epinephrine
Divya
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic feature of alveoli in the lung? a. Poor blood supply b. A large surface area c. Thin walls d. Chemical layer called surfactant
Maryam
a.poor blood supply
Divya
poor blood supply
Tanvi
Excess of cortisol causes______________? a. Acromegaly b. Conn’s syndrome c. Diabetes insipidus d. Cushing syndrome
Maryam
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Maryam
cushing syndrome
Tanvi
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Maryam
Airway resistance in the human lung is? a. Greatest in the generation of distal bronchioles in healthy people because these airways have the smallest radii b. Not increased during a forced expiration in a healthy subject c. Decreased when breathing through the mouth d. Inversely proportional
Maryam
what happens to the brain when one cannot sleep
aghedo
it means melatonin is not released enough to make u fall asleep or there is a disturbance or destruction for melatonin to be released on time
Mhoses
name temporary endocrine gland in female.
KUHELI Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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