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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • List the structures that make up the respiratory system
  • Describe how the respiratory system processes oxygen and CO 2
  • Compare and contrast the functions of upper respiratory tract with the lower respiratory tract

The major organs of the respiratory system function primarily to provide oxygen to body tissues for cellular respiration, remove the waste product carbon dioxide, and help to maintain acid-base balance. Portions of the respiratory system are also used for non-vital functions, such as sensing odors, speech production, and for straining, such as during childbirth or coughing ( [link] ).

Major respiratory structures

This figure shows the upper half of the human body. The major organs in the respiratory system are labeled.
The major respiratory structures span the nasal cavity to the diaphragm.

Functionally, the respiratory system can be divided into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone. The conducting zone    of the respiratory system includes the organs and structures not directly involved in gas exchange. The gas exchange occurs in the respiratory zone    .

Conducting zone

The major functions of the conducting zone are to provide a route for incoming and outgoing air, remove debris and pathogens from the incoming air, and warm and humidify the incoming air. Several structures within the conducting zone perform other functions as well. The epithelium of the nasal passages, for example, is essential to sensing odors, and the bronchial epithelium that lines the lungs can metabolize some airborne carcinogens.

The nose and its adjacent structures

The major entrance and exit for the respiratory system is through the nose. When discussing the nose, it is helpful to divide it into two major sections: the external nose, and the nasal cavity or internal nose.

The external nose    consists of the surface and skeletal structures that result in the outward appearance of the nose and contribute to its numerous functions ( [link] ). The root    is the region of the nose located between the eyebrows. The bridge    is the part of the nose that connects the root to the rest of the nose. The dorsum nasi    is the length of the nose. The apex    is the tip of the nose. On either side of the apex, the nostrils are formed by the alae (singular = ala). An ala    is a cartilaginous structure that forms the lateral side of each naris    (plural = nares), or nostril opening. The philtrum    is the concave surface that connects the apex of the nose to the upper lip.

Nose

This figure shows the human nose. The top left panel shows the front view, and the top right panel shows the side view. The bottom panel shows the cartilaginous components of the nose.
This illustration shows features of the external nose (top) and skeletal features of the nose (bottom).

Underneath the thin skin of the nose are its skeletal features (see [link] , lower illustration). While the root and bridge of the nose consist of bone, the protruding portion of the nose is composed of cartilage. As a result, when looking at a skull, the nose is missing. The nasal bone    is one of a pair of bones that lies under the root and bridge of the nose. The nasal bone articulates superiorly with the frontal bone and laterally with the maxillary bones. Septal cartilage is flexible hyaline cartilage connected to the nasal bone, forming the dorsum nasi. The alar cartilage    consists of the apex of the nose; it surrounds the naris.

Questions & Answers

difference between seminiferous tubules and ejaculatory duct
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Musibi
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Kity
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sonugora Reply
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sonugora Reply
what is manipulated
Ambika Reply
life circle of RBC and the life circle of WBC.
Yemi Reply
RBC 120days
Zeph
RBC 120days and WBC 10-12days
sai
what is cardiac vascular system
Hari
what is anatomy?
Md Reply
what is manipulated
Ambika
anatomy is the branch of medical science which deal with the gross structure of body or organ
Ambika
note shoulder joint
jagadeesh
what is cardiovascular system
Hari
what is manipulated
Ambika
anatomical position
Ambika
?
Ambika
Scapula
sonugora
Study of internal structures
sonugora
the system of heart and vessels
Manar
what is collar Bone?
jagadeesh
positive feedback mechanism
Sirimala Reply
what is immunology
Riya Reply
immunology is a branch of medicine that study's the body immune system
SAMUEL
Immunology This is the study of specific and non-specific resistance of the body against infection i.e. the study of the immune response of a host to a foreign substance, which includes study of various reactions which are induced in the body by introduction of a substance.
Kaluki
what is role of elimination need like fluid and also stools
Munmun Reply
bone
Vijay
what is joint pain
Vijay
is the physical suffering caused by illness or injury of the joint
malulu
pls can someone describe shock,types ,pathophysiology and treatment
Isaac
this is what I'm thinking "After taking out everything the body needs, the bowel then expels the leftover waste."
isaiah
I think elimination also helps in the continuation of the digestive system because if the unwanted fluids and stools does not come out of the system it can create a problem in the digestive. system resulting in diseases.
Martha
shock is a condition whereby the circulating system is unable to get enough blood and oxygen to vital organs like the brain,heart,eye,kidney and others.
Martha
causing depression of those organs.
Martha
there are 2 classification of shock. primary shock: this occurs immediately after injury due emotional stimulus or pain.example hearing a bad news,sudden obstruction of airway.sudden heart attack. secondary shock :it occurs when primary shock is delayed
Martha
types of shock syncope (faint) oligaemic or hyppvovaemic shock. Anaphylactic shock. neurogenic/ physical shock septic sock catdiogenic shock.
Martha
What is the difference between dna duplication and chromosomes duplication?
to help you identify the human body parts to help you live a healthy life the study of Anatomy helps one to work in any health sector
sophia Reply
okay.
what is the function of the mitochondrial in the cell
Vida Reply
define and explain the synovial membrane
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Source:  OpenStax, Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 04, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11496/1.8
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