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The differences in the outcomes of meiosis and mitosis occur because of differences in the behavior of the chromosomes during each process. Most of these differences in the processes occur in meiosis I, which is a very different nuclear division than mitosis. In meiosis I, the homologous chromosome pairs become associated with each other, are bound together, experience chiasmata and crossover between sister chromatids, and line up along the metaphase plate in tetrads with spindle fibers from opposite spindle poles attached to each kinetochore of a homolog in a tetrad. All of these events occur only in meiosis I, never in mitosis.

Homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles during meiosis I so the number of sets of chromosomes in each nucleus-to-be is reduced from two to one. For this reason, meiosis I is referred to as a reduction division    . There is no such reduction in ploidy level in mitosis.

Meiosis II is much more analogous to a mitotic division. In this case, duplicated chromosomes (only one set of them) line up at the center of the cell with divided kinetochores attached to spindle fibers from opposite poles. During anaphase II, as in mitotic anaphase, the kinetochores divide and one sister chromatid is pulled to one pole and the other sister chromatid is pulled to the other pole. If it were not for the fact that there had been crossovers, the two products of each meiosis II division would be identical as in mitosis; instead, they are different because there has always been at least one crossover per chromosome. Meiosis II is not a reduction division because, although there are fewer copies of the genome in the resulting cells, there is still one set of chromosomes, as there was at the end of meiosis I.

Cells produced by mitosis will function in different parts of the body as a part of growth or replacing dead or damaged cells. Cells produced by meiosis in animals will only participate in sexual reproduction.

This illustration compares meiosis and mitosis. In meiosis, there are two rounds of cell division, whereas there is only one round of cell division in mitosis. In both mitosis and meiosis, DNA synthesis occurs during S phase. Synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs in prophase I of meiosis, but does not occur in mitosis. Crossover of chromosomes occurs in prophase I of meiosis, but does not occur in mitosis. Homologous pairs of chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate during metaphase I of meiosis, but not during mitosis. Sister chromatids line up at the metaphase plate during metaphase II of meiosis and metaphase of mitosis. The result of meiosis is four haploid daughter cells, and the result of mitosis is two diploid daughter cells.
Meiosis and mitosis are both preceded by one round of DNA replication; however, meiosis includes two nuclear divisions. The four daughter cells resulting from meiosis are haploid and genetically distinct. The daughter cells resulting from mitosis are diploid and identical to the parent cell.

Concept in action

For an animation comparing mitosis and meiosis, go to this website .

Section summary

Sexual reproduction requires that diploid organisms produce haploid cells that can fuse during fertilization to form diploid offspring. The process that results in haploid cells is called meiosis. Meiosis is a series of events that arrange and separate chromosomes into daughter cells. During the interphase of meiosis, each chromosome is duplicated. In meiosis, there are two rounds of nuclear division resulting in four nuclei and usually four haploid daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. During meiosis, variation in the daughter nuclei is introduced because of crossover in prophase I and random alignment at metaphase I. The cells that are produced by meiosis are genetically unique.

Meiosis and mitosis share similarities, but have distinct outcomes. Mitotic divisions are single nuclear divisions that produce daughter nuclei that are genetically identical and have the same number of chromosome sets as the original cell. Meiotic divisions are two nuclear divisions that produce four daughter nuclei that are genetically different and have one chromosome set rather than the two sets the parent cell had. The main differences between the processes occur in the first division of meiosis. The homologous chromosomes separate into different nuclei during meiosis I causing a reduction of ploidy level. The second division of meiosis is much more similar to a mitotic division.

Questions & Answers

Definition of respiration
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in the mouth
EZEKIEL
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stimulates the follicle to release the mature ovum into the oviduct
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Biology is the study of living organisms, divided into many specialized field that cover their morphology, physiology,anatomy, behaviour,origin and distribution.
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biology is the study of life.
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1-chemical level 2-cellular level 3-organ system level 4-tissue level 5-organism level 6-molecules
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describe the Krebs cycle
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yes
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define unit membran model?
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different between human being and animals
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drugs that dissolve mostly in fatty tissues
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Source:  OpenStax, Human biology. OpenStax CNX. Dec 01, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11903/1.3
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