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By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the relationship of amplitude and frequency of a sound wave to attributes of sound
  • Trace the path of sound through the auditory system to the site of transduction of sound
  • Identify the structures of the vestibular system that respond to gravity

Audition , or hearing, is important to humans and to other animals for many different interactions. It enables an organism to detect and receive information about danger, such as an approaching predator, and to participate in communal exchanges like those concerning territories or mating. On the other hand, although it is physically linked to the auditory system, the vestibular system is not involved in hearing. Instead, an animal’s vestibular system detects its own movement, both linear and angular acceleration and deceleration, and balance.


Auditory stimuli are sound waves, which are mechanical, pressure waves that move through a medium, such as air or water. There are no sound waves in a vacuum since there are no air molecules to move in waves. The speed of sound waves differs, based on altitude, temperature, and medium, but at sea level and a temperature of 20º C (68º F), sound waves travel in the air at about 343 meters per second.

As is true for all waves, there are four main characteristics of a sound wave: frequency, wavelength, period, and amplitude. Frequency is the number of waves per unit of time, and in sound is heard as pitch. High-frequency (≥15.000Hz) sounds are higher-pitched (short wavelength) than low-frequency (long wavelengths; ≤100Hz) sounds. Frequency is measured in cycles per second, and for sound, the most commonly used unit is hertz (Hz), or cycles per second. Most humans can perceive sounds with frequencies between 30 and 20,000 Hz. Women are typically better at hearing high frequencies, but everyone’s ability to hear high frequencies decreases with age. Dogs detect up to about 40,000 Hz; cats, 60,000 Hz; bats, 100,000 Hz; and dolphins 150,000 Hz, and American shad ( Alosa sapidissima ), a fish, can hear 180,000 Hz. Those frequencies above the human range are called ultrasound    .

Amplitude, or the dimension of a wave from peak to trough, in sound is heard as volume and is illustrated in [link] . The sound waves of louder sounds have greater amplitude than those of softer sounds. For sound, volume is measured in decibels (dB). The softest sound that a human can hear is the zero point. Humans speak normally at 60 decibels.

A graph shows a regularly repeating sine wave that goes gradually up, then down, then up again. The distance between two crests is the wavelength. The amplitude is the height of the wave. On the graph, two waves with different wavelengths but the same amplitude are superimposed on one another.
For sound waves, wavelength corresponds to pitch. Amplitude of the wave corresponds to volume. The sound wave shown with a dashed line is softer in volume than the sound wave shown with a solid line. (credit: NIH)

Reception of sound

In mammals, sound waves are collected by the external, cartilaginous part of the ear called the pinna    , then travel through the auditory canal and cause vibration of the thin diaphragm called the tympanum    or ear drum, the innermost part of the outer ear    (illustrated in [link] ). Interior to the tympanum is the middle ear    . The middle ear holds three small bones called the ossicles , which transfer energy from the moving tympanum to the inner ear. The three ossicles are the malleus    (also known as the hammer), the incus    (the anvil), and stapes    (the stirrup). The aptly named stapes looks very much like a stirrup. The three ossicles are unique to mammals, and each plays a role in hearing. The malleus attaches at three points to the interior surface of the tympanic membrane. The incus attaches the malleus to the stapes. In humans, the stapes is not long enough to reach the tympanum. If we did not have the malleus and the incus, then the vibrations of the tympanum would never reach the inner ear. These bones also function to collect force and amplify sounds. The ear ossicles are homologous to bones in a fish mouth: the bones that support gills in fish are thought to be adapted for use in the vertebrate ear over evolutionary time. Many animals (frogs, reptiles, and birds, for example) use the stapes of the middle ear to transmit vibrations to the middle ear.

Questions & Answers

how can a human being die by drinking too much of water
Olaleke Reply
Scientific name of a dog in canis familiarise?
Jaymez Reply
what's biology?
Biology is the study of living organism and their interaction with one another and their environment
an other questions please
what is biosphere.
where are pollen grains produced pls.
And what are emphatic factors.
@Chinyi Bahiyah -pollen grains are produced in the anther of plants. the anther is one part of the male part of the plant the other being filament and they together form the stamen. hoped that helped :) !!
what is science?
Benedict Reply
Science is the method of acquiring skills and knowledge through experimentation and observation in the World Series
what is ecology
is the study that deals with the interaction between living things and their environment
what is the main fuction of root hair cells?
the main function is to uptake of water and nutrients from the rhizosphere.
State the genius to where the dog belong.
where does meiosis occur in male plant reproductive organ
Gimai Reply
plant cell is plasmolysed as a result of the
Favour Reply
of the plant losing water
"Head of a pin" means what?
Theresah Reply
types of genotype and types of blood group
Adebusuyi Reply
what is biology
Musa Reply
is the study of cell and structure of an organism
is the study of characteristics,life processes and phenomana of living organism
What is Monomer of protein?
Dimpho Reply
What's nutrition and types of nutrition
Jessica Reply
Why is cheetah d fastest animal
Jessica Reply
because they are capable of reaching speeds of up to 70mph
what is a cell
Reuben Reply
what is an enzymes
a cell is a biological catalyst that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction without itself been changed
a cell is smallest unit of life
an Enzyme helps speed up a chemical reaction
is the basic structural and functional unit of all organism
what is deamination
Mutebi Reply
Is the removal of amino radical from amino acid or any other amino compound.
what is metabolism
Allen Reply
metabolism is the the combination of all the reaction that occur within your body
These reaction can be either anabolic (which is the building up of molecules) or can be catabolism (breaking of molecules) but these processes occur simultaneously to maintain homeostasis(internal body environment) within the body.
hope that helps :D !!
list 20 element in their order
Dor Reply
hydrogen helium lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon sodium Magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine Aaron potassium calcium -Also if anyone is having trouble remembering the elements I recommend watching "The Periodic Table of elements song" :)

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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