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The vegetation and low animal diversity of this biome is closely related to this low and unpredictable precipitation. Very dry deserts lack perennial vegetation that lives from one year to the next; instead, many plants are annuals that grow quickly and reproduce when rainfall does occur, then they die. Many other plants in these areas are characterized by having a number of adaptations that conserve water, such as deep roots, reduced foliage, and water-storing stems ( [link] ). Seed plants in the desert produce seeds that can be in dormancy for extended periods between rains. Adaptations in desert animals include nocturnal behavior and burrowing.

 This photo shows a sandy desert dotted with scrubby bushes. An ocotillo plant dominates the picture. It has long, thin unbranched stems that grow straight up from the base of the plant and radiate out slightly. The plant has no leaves.
To reduce water loss, many desert plants have tiny leaves or no leaves at all. The leaves of ocotillo ( Fouquieria splendens ), shown here in the Sonora Desert near Gila Bend, Arizona, appear only after rainfall, and then are shed.

Chaparral

The chaparral is also called the scrub forest and is found in California, along the Mediterranean Sea, and along the southern coast of Australia ( [link] ). The annual rainfall in this biome ranges from 65 cm to 75 cm (25.6–29.5 in), and the majority of the rain falls in the winter. Summers are very dry and many chaparral plants are dormant during the summertime. The chaparral vegetation, shown in [link] , is dominated by shrubs and is adapted to periodic fires, with some plants producing seeds that only germinate after a hot fire. The ashes left behind after a fire are rich in nutrients like nitrogen that fertilize the soil and promote plant regrowth.

 Photo depicts a landscape with many shrubs, dormant grass, a few trees, and mountains in the background.
The chaparral is dominated by shrubs. (credit: Miguel Vieira)

Temperate grasslands

Temperate grasslands are found throughout central North America, where they are also known as prairies; they are also in Eurasia, where they are known as steppes ( [link] ). Temperate grasslands have pronounced annual fluctuations in temperature with hot summers and cold winters. The annual temperature variation produces specific growing seasons for plants. Plant growth is possible when temperatures are warm enough to sustain plant growth and when ample water is available, which occurs in the spring, summer, and fall. During much of the winter, temperatures are low, and water, which is stored in the form of ice, is not available for plant growth.

Annual precipitation ranges from 25 cm to 75 cm (9.8–29.5 in). Because of relatively lower annual precipitation in temperate grasslands, there are few trees except for those found growing along rivers or streams. The dominant vegetation tends to consist of grasses and some prairies sustain populations of grazing animals [link] . The vegetation is very dense and the soils are fertile because the subsurface of the soil is packed with the roots and rhizomes (underground stems) of these grasses. The roots and rhizomes act to anchor plants into the ground and replenish the organic material (humus) in the soil when they die and decay.

 This photo shows a bison, which is dark brown in color with an even darker head. The hind part of the animal has short fur, and the front of the animal has longer, curly fur.
The American bison ( Bison bison ), more commonly called the buffalo, is a grazing mammal that once populated American prairies in huge numbers. (credit: Jack Dykinga, USDA Agricultural Research Service)

Questions & Answers

A plant is a living thing that grows in the earth and has a stem, leaves, and roots
Bello Reply
what is a plant
dalitso Reply
A plant is a living thing that grows in the earth and has a stem, leaves, and roots
Bello
a plant is an is a living thing that is classified under autothrops because it makes its own food through the process of photosynthesis .
Joanne
what is plant
Odion Reply
Plants are autotrophic
Baramox
Then animal are heterotrophic
Iyiola
what are organisms
Godfred Reply
the diagram below show how the blood of a human embryo flows close to the mothers blood in the placenta . which substances are represent at x in higher concentrations than at y
Joyce Reply
what is ecology
Odion Reply
what is cell
Odion
what is cell
Odion
What is a cell
Awal Reply
What are tissues
Awal
A cell is the smallest unit of living organisms.
hamidat
Tissues are group of similar cells performing a particular function.
hamidat
how to pronounce the word cyanobacteria
siva Reply
Cyano then bacteria. look that "cyano" is just like "ciyano".
hamidat
explain the term transpiration pull
Tank Reply
water is mainly " pulled" through the plant and that the driving force for this process is transpiration from the leaves .This is also referred to as the cohesion- tension -transpiration pull model transport.
Vanessa
explain TRANSIOCATION and GUTATION
Tank
what Is corona
INGIEBE Reply
My brother go and ask GOOGLE😷😷😷
hamidat
Google it for the right answer. Corona is a virus which causes Novel Covid-19 disease that has been declared by WHO as a global or world pandemic.
Katlholo
Why is it called Covid-19?
Katlholo
jjwhat is. condinative system
Odion
joy
Odion
condinative system is the system that harmonize all the. different. part. of. the. body and make. them function as a. specific unit
Odion
Describe the process of protein sythesis?
Kizito Reply
Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in animals.
hamidat
What is a ploidy level
Francis Reply
Ploidy refers to the number of chromosomes. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes in somatic cells. Sex cells are haploid thus 23 chromosomes vs. 46 Chromosomes.
Eric
Evolution is evolvement according to one's environment. Let's use humidity as an example. A person from a very cold environment would not be used to hot humid weather. But over time their body would slowly, slowly adapt.
Eric
Give me (3) types of biodiversity
Jay
Hi guys 🇧🇪
Namutebi
hello boy
Tedi
hi
INGIEBE
yes
amani
what do you guys understand about evolution?
Kiana Reply
it's a process or analayzing some program
Fahamia
but am not sure if some know plz let share
Fahamia
is a study of
Sarah
unfolding or unrolling hence the process of development of growth
Sarah
is the periodic change of the structural features of an organism
Rahim
I think
Rahim
process of developing
Nikita
hi guiz
Mohammed
hello guys
Safuna
hi
Kaniki
Evolution ~ Is the gradual change of development over time in which a new species are formed
amani
Evolution is the sum total of adaptive changes that has existed before.
hamidat
odionjimoh
Odion
hi
Odion
why are diagrams not available
Evans Reply
How can nucleotide molecules of DNA be constructed?construct a six molecules of DNA?
Julia Reply
You take a Deoxyribose sugar. The Deoxyribose sugar has a hydrogen on the second carbon vs. an OH group. The nitrogenous base binds to the #1 Carbon and a phosphate binds to the 5'. When the 2nd NBase bonds, it does so on the 3' Carbon. Thus you have 5' to 3' directional growth.
Eric
what is the explanation of local biomes in Nigeria
Kabir
It would be savanna, tropical grassland.
Eric

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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