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A photo collage of images from the chapter. Clockwise from top left are: ringworm in skin; trypanosomes (pink ribbon-like parasites) in a smear of blood viewed under a light microscope; an electron micrograph of tree mold, showing a long, slender stalk that branches into long chains of spores that look like a string of beads; a wedge of cheese; a scanning electron micrograph of MRSA bacteria, which looks like clusters of spheres clinging to a surface; grapes with white and brown fungus; pale pink, cup-shaped fungi growing on a log; a scanning electron micrograph of corkscrew-shaped bacterium; coral fungus, a yellowish-orange fungus that grows in a cluster and is lobe-shaped.
Living things are very diverse, from simple, single-celled bacteria to complex, multicellular organisms. (credit "ringworm": modification of work by Dr. Lucille K. Georg, CDC; credit "Trypanosomes": modification of work by Dr. Myron G. Schultz, CDC; credit “tree mold”: modification of work by Janice Haney Carr, Robert Simmons, CDC; credit "coral fungus": modification of work by Cory Zanker; credit "bacterium": modification of work by Dr. David Cox, CDC; credit "cup fungus": modification of work by "icelight"/Flickr; credit "MRSA": modification of work by Janice Haney Carr, CDC; credit "moldy grapefruit": modification of work by Joseph Smilanick)

Until the late twentieth century, scientists most commonly grouped living things into five kingdoms—animals, plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria—based on several criteria, such as absence or presence of a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, absence or presence of cell walls, multicellularity, and mode of nutrition. In the late twentieth century, the pioneering work of Carl Woese and others compared nucleotide sequences of small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), which resulted in a dramatically different way to group organisms on Earth. Based on differences in the structure of cell membranes and in rRNA, Woese and his colleagues proposed that all life on Earth evolved along three lineages, called domains. The three domains are called Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.

Two of the three domains—Bacteria and Archaea—are prokaryotic, meaning that they lack both a nucleus and true membrane-bound organelles. However, they are now considered, on the basis of membrane structure and rRNA, to be as different from each other as they are from the third domain, the Eukarya. Prokaryotes were the first inhabitants on Earth, perhaps appearing approximately 3.9 billion years ago. Today they are ubiquitous—inhabiting the harshest environments on the planet, from boiling hot springs to permanently frozen environments in Antarctica, as well as more benign environments such as compost heaps, soils, ocean waters, and the guts of animals (including humans). The Eukarya include the familiar kingdoms of animals, plants, and fungi. They also include a diverse group of kingdoms formerly grouped together as protists.

Questions & Answers

what are the properties of lipids?
Isiah Reply
explain why a fresh water fish excrete ammonia
Leonard Reply
plz answer my question
sorry i meant it has a nucleous unlike plant cells lol
What are eukaryotic cells?
Nwosueke Reply
cell with no nucleous so not a plant cell
eukaryotic cells are membrane bound organelles that have a membrane bound nucleus
where does the cell get energy for active transport processes?
A'Kaysion Reply
IDK maybe glucose
what is synapsis
Adepoju Reply
how many turns are required to make a molecule of sucrose in Calvin cycle
Amina Reply
why Calvin cycle occurs in stroma
why do humans enhale oxygen and exhale carbondioxide?
Maryam Reply
why do humans enhale oxygen and exhale carbondioxide? For the purpose of breaking down the food
what is allele
uzoka Reply
process of protein synthesis
what is cell
Zulf Reply
a cell is a smallest basic, structural and functional unit of life that is capable of self replication
why does a fresh water fish excrete ammonia
plz answer my question
Ammonia is a toxic colorless gas and when its inside the fish biological system is converted to a less toxic compound then excreted in the form of urea. However too much ammonia will kill the fish " Ammonia Poisoning " which is a very common disease among fish.
what is cytoplasm
uzoka Reply
cytoplasm is fluid of cell.
how many major types of Cloning
Saeed Reply
comparative anatomy of gymnosperms?
Meenakshi Reply
anatomy of gymnosperms
how genes are regulated
Ainjue Reply
what is storage of glycogen
Student Reply
glycogen is a protein content

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Source:  OpenStax, Concepts of biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11487/1.9
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